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Three Cool New Features in C#

Everyone who programs in C# will want to take advantage of these new features. CoDe Magazine Publisher Markus Egger covers the basics of anonymous methods, partial classes, and generics.




Application Security Testing: An Integral Part of DevOps

# has always had a reputation as a clean language with lots of innovation. The Whidbey-release of Visual Studio .NET ships with a new version of the C# compiler that has a number of great new features. Some of them will be implemented as generic runtime features that will show up in other languages as well, and some are truly C#-specific. All of them originated in the C# camp.

Anonymous Methods, Generics, and Partial Types are among the new features that will enter the C# arena in the near future. Some have been long anticipated; others are a surprise. All of them increase productivity and code reuse.

Anonymous Methods
If you have developed in C#, you are probably familiar with Delegates. Delegates are objects that encapsulate references to functions. One of the most common uses of Delegates is the implementation of event handler code. To see this in action, create a new Windows Forms (WinForms) project, and drop a button onto your form. Then, double-click on the button to create code that handles the click event. Behind the scenes, the WinForms designer creates two separate pieces of code. There is the actual event handler code, which, after adding the messagebox call, might look like this:

private void button1_Click( object sender, System.EventArgs e) { MessageBox.Show("Test"); }

Additionally, and usually hidden in the form's designer-generated code region, this code is wired up to the button's click event like so:

this.button1.Click += new System.EventHandler( this.button1_Click);

Note that the event handler method has to conform to a certain signature (two parameters of type object and System.EventArgs in this case). This is defined in the System.EventHandler delegate.

The big question is: What did we gain by creating this separate method that is tied to the click event through the EventHandler delegate? Well, not a whole lot, because there is no true need to call the method otherwise. But all of this is necessary in order to make event handling work.

Anonymous Methods simplify this a bit. Rather than instantiating a delegate and creating a method to point to, the code for the whole handler method can be created inline. No method name is defined (hence the name Anonymous Methods), but parameters are still required. Here's what that syntax looks like:

this.button1.Click += delegate(object sender, EventArgs e) { MessageBox.Show("Test"); };

As you can see, what is assigned to the Click event is not a pointer to a method, but the entire method code itself, including the parameters, and without a method name. Note that there has to be a semi-colon at the end, because all of this is really just one line of code.

One of the really cool uses of this technique is the ability to pass code as a parameter. Envision a scenario where a delegate is used as a call-back, a pattern that is commonly used in a number of scenarios, such as asynchronous programming, or whenever a process reports on its progress. Here is an example that illustrates this:

public delegate void Feedback(string Text); public void Execute(Feedback d1) { d1("Starting..."); // More code d1("Still going..."); // Mode code d1("Done."); }

You could now instantiate a delegate that encapsulates a method with one string parameter and pass it to the Execute method to receive feedback on the method's progress. Alternatively, you could just call the method and pass the feedback code in as a parameter:

Execute( delegate(string s) {MessageBox.Show(s);} );

So everything within the parenthesis of the Execute() call is the anonymous method. And of course, you can pass in as many lines of code as you want. Oh, and before I forget, unlike manually created delegates, anonymous methods can actually see local variables defined in the calling method. So this works just fine:

string s2 = "Test"; Execute( delegate(string s) {MessageBox.Show(s+s2);} );

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