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Use multimap to Create Associative Containers with Duplicate Keys-3 : Page 3




Application Security Testing: An Integral Part of DevOps

Finding a Single Value
multimap, like map, has two overloaded versions of the find() member function:

iterator find(const key_type& k); const_iterator find(const key_type& k) const;

find(k) returns an iterator to the first pair that matches the key k. This means it's mostly useful when you want to check whether there is at least one value associated with the key or when you need only the first match. For example:

typedef multimap <string, string> mmss; void func(const mmss & dns) { mmss::const_iterator cit=dns.find(""); if (cit != dns.end()) cout <<" found" <<endl; else cout <<"not found" <<endl; }

Handling Multiple Associated Values
The count(k) member function returns the number of values associated with a given key. The following example reports how many values are associated with the key

cout<<dns.count("") //output: 2 <<" elements associated"<<endl;

To access multiple values in a multimap, use the equal_range(), lower_bound() and upper_bound() member functions:
  • equal_range(k): This function finds all of the values associated with the key k. This function returns a pair of iterators that mark the beginning and the end of the range. The following example displays all the values associated with the key

    typedef multimap <string, string>::const_iterator CIT; typedef pair<CIT, CIT> Range; Range range=dns.equal_range(""); for(CIT i=range.first; i!=range.second; ++i) cout << i->second << endl; //output: cpluspluszone.com // cppzone.com

  • lower_bound() and upper_bound(): lower_bound(k) finds the first value associated with the key k, and upper_bound(k) finds the first element whose key is greater than k. The following example uses upper_bound() to locate the first element whose key is greater than As usual, when the key is of type string a lexicographical comparison takes place:

    dns.insert(make_pair("", "pythonzone.com")); CIT cit=dns.upper_bound(""); if (cit!=dns.end()) //found anything? cout<<cit->second<<endl; //display: pythonzone.com

    If you wish to display all the subsequent values, use a loop like this:

    //insert multiple values with the same key dns.insert(make_pair("", "pythonzone.com")); dns.insert(make_pair("", "python-zone.com")); //get an iterator to the first value CIT cit=dns.upper_bound(""); //output: pythonzone.com python-zone.com while(cit!=dns.end()) { cout<<cit->second<<endl; ++cit; }

Concept Mapping
Although map and multimap have similar interfaces, the crucial difference between the two, with respect to duplicate keys, entails different design and usage. In addition, you should be aware of the subtle differences between the insert() member function of each container.

Danny Kalev is a certified system analyst and software engineer specializing in C++. He was a member of the C++ standards committee between 1997 and 2000 and has since been involved informally in the C++0x standardization process. He is the author of "The ANSI/ISO Professional C++ Programmer's Handbook" and "The Informit C++ Reference Guide: Techniques, Insight, and Practical Advice on C++."
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