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Restrain Conversion Operators with the "Indirect Conversion" Idiom-2 : Page 2

Presenting the Problem
Suppose you're designing a smart pointer class. In addition to overloading the operators * and ->, a smart pointer class usually defines a conversion operator to bool:

template <class T> class Ptr { public: operator bool() const { return (rawptr ? true: false); } //..more stuff private: T * rawptr; };

The conversion to bool enables clients to use smart pointers in expressions that require bool operands:

Ptr<int> ptr(new int); if(ptr ) //calls operator bool() cout<<"int value is: "<<*ptr <<endl; else cout<<"empty"<<endl;

Furthermore, the implicit conversion to bool is required in conditional declarations such as:

if (shared_ptr<X> px = dynamic_pointer_cast<X>(py)) { //we get here only of px isn't empty }

Alas, this automatic conversion opens the gate to unwelcome surprises:

Ptr <int> p1; Ptr <double> p2; //surprise #1 cout<<"p1 + p2 = "<< p1+p2 <<endl; //prints 0, 1, or 2 Ptr <File> pf; Ptr <Query> pq; // Query and File are unrelated //surprise #2 if(pf==pq) //compares bool values, not pointers!

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