- HP and Microsoft form JConsortium to develop real-time extensions to Java outside of Sun's control.
- JavaCard licensed to many Smart Card makers. Sun claims 1 million cards shipped in Q1.
- Sun shows Java Server Pages (JSP), technology for generating dynamic-content Web pages, similar toand in competition withMicrosoft's Active Server Pages (ASP), except JSP works on any server platform while ASP works only on Microsoft NT servers.
- Sun, AOL form iPlanet to make Java-based wireless software. Part of Sun's aggressive efforts to put Java into every market and on every platform, here Sun and AOL (with its Netscape subsidiary) work producing software for the burgeoning wireless market. Java's built-in networking and downloadable component architecture give it a natural advantage here.
- Java Embedded Server (JES) 1.0 ships, for residential gateways.
-JavaPhone API spec included in Europe's GSM standard.
-Longtime Java chief Alan Baratz steps down.
- J2EE beta released.
- First Java-powered telephones ship in Europe.
- Sun withdraws its submission of to European Computer Manufacturer's Association (ECMA) standards body, fearing control of Java by Sun enemies. Sun says it will rely on Java Community Process, Sun's own mechanism for allowing third parties to have a say on Java's development.
- J2EE ships; more than 2.5 million are downloaded during the next 18 months.
- Sun says 79 percent of U.S. universities are teaching Java, half as a requirement for computer students. Sun also counts more than 1,600 Java books in print.
-Forrester Research says programmers using Java and CORBA outnumber those using Microsoft's COM model two to one (44 percent to 24 percent).
-Evans Marketing Services Research Group counts 44% of software developers in North America using Java at least some of the time, and 43% of developers outside North America using it. And 40% of developers polled said they preferred EJB for Web e-commerce applications, three times those who preferred COM/DCOM.
-Cutter Consortium claims 51% of companies studied are using Java for ebusiness.
-Gartner Group claims that by 2002, the Java Virtual Machine will be on 90 percent of all servers and desktops.
-Another researcher says Java is the *only* language showing growth in number of users and intended users among developers.
Summary of 1999:
Sun continues to strengthen basic Java platform, while continuing to push Java technology out into the wider world of non-personal-computer devicesa world, not incidentally, where Microsoft has no dominance. Some of these won't go anywhere, but it's keeping the pressure on Microsoft, which can only respond by hinting at COOL, its intended Java-killer. Grumbling licensees and complaints about the standards process don't seem able to derail the Java juggernaut. Sun polishes its reputation for industry-leading innovation with Jini, a communications system for "intelligent" network devices that seems to mystify the nontechnical press.