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Dig Deep into Python Internals  : Page 2

Python, the open source scripting language, has grown tremendously popular in the last five years—and with good reason. Python boasts a sophisticated object model that wise developers can exploit in ways that Java, C++, and C# developers can only dream of.




Application Security Testing: An Integral Part of DevOps

Instances, Classes, Class Factories, and Metaclasses
When I talk about instances I mean object instances of a class derived from object (or the object class itself). A class is a type, but as you recall it is also an object (of type 'type'). This allows classes to be created and manipulated at runtime. This code demonstrates how to create a class at runtime and instantiate it.

def init_method(self, x, y): self.x = x self.y = y def dumpSum_method(self): print self.x + self.y D = type('DynamicClass', (object,), {'__init__':init_method, 'dumpSum':dumpSum_method}) d = D(3, 4) d.dumpSum()

As you can see I created two functions (init_method and dumpSum_method) and then invoked the ubiquitous 'type' function as a class factory to create a class called 'DynamicClass,' which is derived from 'object' and has two methods (one is the __init__ constructor).

It is pretty simple to create the functions themselves on the fly too. Note that the methods I attached to the class are regular functions that can be called directly (provided their self-argument has x and y members, similar to C++ template arguments).

Functions, Methods and other Callables
Python enjoys a plethora of callable objects. Callable objects are function-like objects that can be invoked by calling their () operator. Callable objects include plain functions (module-level), methods (bound, unbound, static, and class methods) and any other object that has a __call__ function attribute (either in its own dictionary, via one of its ancestors, or through a descriptor).

It's truly complicated so the bottom line is to remember that all these flavors of callables eventually boil down to a plain function. For example, in the code below the class A defines a method named 'foo' that can be accessed through:

  1. an instance so it is a bound method (bound implicitly to its instance)
  2. through the class A itself and then it is an unbound method (the instance must be supplied explicitly)
  3. directly from A's dictionary, in which case it is a plain function (but you must still call it with an instance of A).
So, all methods are actually functions but the runtime assigns different types depending on how you access it.

class A(object): def foo(self): print 'I am foo' >>> a = A() >>> a.foo <bound method A.foo of <__main__.A object at 0x00A13EB0>> >>> A.foo <unbound method A.foo> >>> A.__dict__['foo'] <function foo at 0x00A0A3F0> >>> a.foo >>> a.foo() I am foo >>> A.foo(a) I am foo >>> A.__dict__['foo'](a) I am foo

Let's talk about static methods and class methods. Static methods are very simple. They are similar to static methods in Java/C++/C#. They are scoped by their class but they don't have a special first argument like instance methods or class methods do; they act just like a regular function (you must provide all the arguments since they can't access any instance fields). Static methods are not so useful in Python because regular module-level functions are already scoped by their module and they are the natural mapping to static methods in Java/C++/C#.

Class methods are an exotic animal. Their first argument is the class itself (traditionally named cls) and they are used primarily in esoteric scenarios. Static and class methods actually return a wrapper around the original function object. In the code that follows, note that the static method may be accessed either through an instance or through a class. The class method accepts a cls instance as its first argument but cls is invoked through a class directly (no explicit class argument). This is different from an unbound method where you have to provide an instance explicitly as first argument.

class A(object): def foo(): print 'I am foo' def foo2(cls): print 'I am foo2', cls def foo3(self): print 'I am foo3', self foo=staticmethod(foo) foo2=classmethod(foo2) >>> a = A() >>> a.foo() I am foo >>> A.foo() I am foo >>> A.foo2() I am foo2 <class '__main__.A'> >>> a.foo3() I am foo3 <__main__.A object at 0x00A1AA10>

Note that classes are callable objects by themselves and operate as instance factories. When you "call" a class you get an instance of that class as a result.

A different kind of callable object is an object that has a __call__ method. If you want to pass around a function-like object with its context intact, __call__ can be a good thing. Listing 1 features a simple 'add' function that can be replaced with a caching adder class that stores results of previous calculations. First, notice that the test function expects a function-like object called 'add' and it just invokes it as a function. The 'test' function is called twice—once with a simple function and a second time with the caching adder instance. Continuations in Python can also be implemented using __call__ but that's another article.

Metaclasse is a concept that doesn't exist in today's mainstream programming languages. A metaclass is a class whose instances are classes. You already encountered a meta-class in this article called 'type'. When you invoke "type" with a class name, a base-classes tuple, and an attribute dictionary, the method creates a new user-defined class of the specified type. So the __class__ attribute of every class always contains its meta-class (normally 'type').

That's nice, but what can you do with a metaclass? It turns out, you can do plenty. Metaclasses allow you to control everything about the class that will be created: name, base classes, methods, and fields. How is it different from simply defining any class you want or even creating a class dynamically on the fly? Well, it allows you to intercept the creation of classes that are predefined as in aspect-oriented programming. This is a killer feature that I'll be discussing in a follow-up to this article.

After a class is defined, the interpreter looks for a meta-class. If it finds one it invokes its __init__ method with the class instance and the meta-class gets a stab at modifying it (or returning a completely different class). The interpreter will use the class object returned from the meta-class to create instances of this class.

So, how do you stick a custom metaclass on a class (new-style classes only)? Either you declare a __metaclass__ field or one of your ancestors has a __metaclass__ field. The inheritance method is intriguing because Python allows multiple inheritance. If you inherit from two classes that have custom metaclasses you are in for a treat—one of the metaclasses must derive from another. The actual metaclass of your class will be the most derived metaclass:

class M1(type): pass class M2(M1): pass class C2(object): __metaclass__=M2 class C1(object): __metaclass__=M1 class C3(C1, C2): pass classes = [C1, C2, C3] for c in classes: print c, c.__class__ print '------------' Output: <class '__main__.C1'> <class '__main__.M1'> ------------ <class '__main__.C2'> <class '__main__.M2'> ------------ <class '__main__.C3'> <class '__main__.M2'>

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