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Tip of the Day
Home » Tip Bank » C++
Language: C++
Expertise: Beginner
May 2, 1997

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Defining behavior in one constructor, then letting two others call it

Question:
I defined a class A, which has three constructors:
A(), A(int), A(int, int)
Can I just define the behavior in one constructor, say A(int, int), and let the other two constructors call A(int, int)?

I can do that in Java.

For example,

public class A
{
  public A()
  {
    this(1, 2);
  }

  pub A(int i)
  {
    this(i, 2);
  }

  public A(int i, int j)
  {
    c = i + j;
  }

  public int c;
}
How do I do that in C++? And will it allocate the variables twice in C++?

Answer:
Cool idea, but unfortunately you can't do that. You can, however, apply one of two solutions. You can overload the constructor in a manner similar to what is being illustrated in your code sample, but instead of attempting to call one constructor from the other, you can create a private helper function that all constructors call, thus giving you the same effect (see code extract below).

#include 
class A{

// Constructors
public:
	A( );
	A(int);
	A(int , int);

// Operations
public:
	int getTotal();

// Helper function
private:
	void Init(int, int);

// Attributes
private:
	int c;
};

A::A( )
{
	Init( 1, 2 );
}

A::A(int i)
{
Init( i, 2 );
}

A::A(int i, int j)
{
	Init( i, j );
}

void A::Init(int i, int j)
{
	c =3D i + j;
}

int A::getTotal()
{
	return c;
}

void main()
{
	A myA1;
	A myA2(5);
	A myA3(5, 4);

	cout << "myA1 total: " << myA1.getTotal() << endl; 	// myA1 total: 3
	cout << "myA2 total: " << myA2.getTotal() << endl;	// myA2 total: 7
cout << "myA3 total: " << myA3.getTotal() << endl;	// myA3 total: 9
}
A more elegant alternative is to create a constructor with default parameters. Check out the code extract below:
#include 
class A
{
// Constructor
public:
	A(int i =3D 1, int j =3D 2);

// Operations
public:
	int getTotal();

private:
	int c;
};

A::A(int i, int j)
{
	c =3D i + j;
}

int A::getTotal()
{
	return c;
}

void main()
{
	A myA1;
	A myA2(5);
	A myA3(5, 4);

	cout << "myA1 total: " << myA1.getTotal() << endl; 	// myA1 total: 3
	cout << "myA2 total: " << myA2.getTotal() << endl;	// myA2 total: 7
cout << "myA3 total: " << myA3.getTotal() << endl;	// myA3 total: 9
}
The C++ compiler will automatically overload the constructor applying the same body of code in all cases. Just imagine the compiler generating the following overloaded constructors:
A::A( )
{
	c =3D 1 + 2;
}

A::A(int i)
{
	c =3D i + 2;
}

A::A(int i, int j)
{
	c =3D i + j;
}
In any case, you can see the elegance of default parameters if used appropriately as opposed to function-overloading, be it constructors or regular member functions.
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