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Accessing and Manipulating the DOM with PHP : Page 4

Discover how to create a DOM tree from scratch or modify an existing DOM tree using PHP 5.


Importing Nodes

Use the importNode method to copy a node from another tree to the current tree:

DOMNode DOMDocument::importNode(DOMNode $importedNode [,bool $deep]): This method imports a node from another XML document and inserts it into the current document's DOM tree. The $importedNode argument specifies the node to import. The imported node represents a copy of the original node, so the import does not alter the external tree. The $deep argument controls whether the method imports a deep copy of the imported node. When TRUE, the method imports the entire node subtree; when FALSE, it imports only the node.

As an example, this next application imports the <continue> node from the Book_continue.xml file into Book.xml. First, here's the Book_continue.xml document contents:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes" ?> <!--chapter V--> <continue> <chapter_V> <title>XPath</title> <content>XPath is language for...</content> </chapter_V> <![CDATA[ This chaper is a bonus to... ]]> <printing cap_I="click_here_for_chapter_I" cap_II="click_here_for_chapter_II" cap_III="click_here_for_chapter_III" cap_IV="click_here_for_chapter_IV" cap_V="click_here_for_chapter_V" /> </continue>

And here's the code to import the <continue> node:

<?php $olddoc = new DOMDocument; $olddoc->load("Book_continue.xml"); // The node we want to import to a new document $node = $olddoc->getElementsByTagName("continue")->item(0); $newdoc = new DOMDocument; $newdoc->formatOutput = true; $newdoc->load("Book.xml"); // Import the node, and all its children, to the document $node = $newdoc->importNode($node, true); // And then append it to the root node $newdoc->documentElement->appendChild($node); echo "\nThe 'new document' after copying the nodes into it:\n"; $root = $newdoc->firstChild; function getNodesInfo($node) { if ($node->hasChildNodes()) { $subNodes = $node->childNodes; foreach ($subNodes as $subNode) { if (($subNode->nodeType != 3) || (($subNode->nodeType ==3) && (strlen(trim($subNode->wholeText))>=1))) { echo "Node name: ".$subNode->nodeName."\n"; echo "Node value: ".$subNode->nodeValue."\n"; } getNodesInfo($subNode); } } } getNodesInfo($root); ?>

Figure 7 shows the output from the preceding code.

Figure 7. Imported Node: Here's what Book.xml looks like after importing the node from the Book_continue.xml and placing it at the end of the Book.xml tree.

Checking Node Equality

To check whether two nodes are the same use the function isSameNode:

bool DOMNode::isSameNode(DOMNode $node): This function returns a Boolean TRUE when the nodes are equal, and FALSE otherwise. The $node argument represents the node to which you want to compare the current node.

Note that the comparison is not based on the content of the nodes.

//Checking if two nodes are equals $author1 = $root->getElementsByTagName('autor')->item(0); $author2 = $root->getElementsByTagName('autor')->item(1); //The verifyNodes function call verifyNodes($author1,$author2); function verifyNodes($currentNode, $node) { if (($currentNode->isSameNode($node))==true) { echo "These two nodes are the same"; } }

Creating a New Tree

You don't have to start with an existing tree; the DOM extension for PHP 5 lets you build trees from scratch. The following example creates a completely new XML document. It also uses two new functions that let you create a comment and CDATA nodes:

  • DOMComment DOMDocument::createComment(string $data): Create a new comment node. The $data argument represents the node content.
  • DOMCDATASection DOMDocument::createCDATASection(string $data): Create a new CDATA node. The $data argument represents the node content.

The example in Listing 2 creates an object tree and saves it as Flowers.xml.

The new Flower.xml document looks like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <!--Beautiful flowers!!!--> <flowers> <tulips> <bulbs price="€ 7.65">Parrot</bulbs> <bulbs color="magenta">Lily flowering</bulbs> </tulips> </flowers> <![CDATA[<gladiolus> <species>Sword Lily</species> <species>Starface</species> </gladiolus> ]]>

This brief introduction to the DOM extension for PHP 5 should give you enough background to manipulate existing XML (or HTML) documents, or to create them from scratch.

Octavia Andreea Anghel is a senior PHP developer currently working as a primary trainer for programming teams that participate at national and international software-development contests. She consults on developing educational projects at a national level. She is a coauthor of the book "XML Technologies—XML in Java" (Albastra, ISBN 978-973-650-210-1), for which she wrote the XML portions. In addition to PHP and XML, she's interested in software architecture, web services, UML, and high-performance unit tests.
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