Generating WBXML Format from XML
Listing 1 contains a Wireless Markup Language (WML) file. WML is an XML based markup language similar to HTML, but optimized to serve as a presentation layer in the small, monochrome screens typically associated with WAP devices. I'll show you how to convert WML to WBXML. Listing 2 shows the WBXML format resulting from the conversion process and Table 1 (see the last page of this article) gives descriptive notes for each byte in Listing 2.
Most of the WBXML format is not humanly readable; it contains bytes or octets in raw (non-textual or non-encoded) hexadecimal (hex) form. Two hex numbers represent one byte. For example, 0100 1000 in hex form is 0x48 (0x is the standard form of writing hex numbers; the number 4 represents 0100 and the number 8 represents 1000 in hex). As another example, the binary number 1100 1110 0111 1101 in hex is 0xCE 0x7D.
The first byte of a WBXML file represents the WBXML specification version number used in the file. The version uses a zero-based syntax where the number 0x03 means version 1.3 and 0x13 represents version 2.3. In this example, using WBXML version 1.3, the first byte of the WBXML file is 0x03. Version 1.3 is the latest version, called WAP 2.0 (see the June 2001 release on WAP Forum's web site).
The sequence of bytes following the version number represents the Document Type Definition (DTD) of the XML file that you want to transform. There are two ways of doing this. First, you can include a well-known public ID for the DTD. If no public ID is available, you can include the DTD in its string form. Listing 2 uses the first method (0x04 for WML, byte 2 of Table 1).
Byte 3 contains the character-encoding declaration. WBXML requires an Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) MIBEnum value instead of a character encoding declaration. For further information about IANA MIBEnum values, refer to IANA web site (see the resources column). Table 1 shows the MIBEnum value for the UTF encoding used in the example, which is 106 (decimal) or 0x6A.
A String Table follows the character encoding. A string table is a reusable sequence of characters (yes, characters and not bytes) that you include once in a WBXML file and can refer to from anywhere else in the WBXML file. String tables reduce WBXML file size by using references to avoid inserting any sequence of characters more than once. The fourth byte specifies the total length (number of characters) in the string table. This example doesn't use a string table; therefore byte 4 Listing 2 contains 0x00, which means length of the string table is zero.
Byte 5 represents the root element (<wml>). The example uses a standard WML DTD for which the WAP Forum has defined a WBXML encoding table. So in this case you can simply use the WML byte codes that the WAP Forum has defined in their WML specification and you don't need to include any element names in the WBXML document. The WBXML specification allows you to use byte codes ranging from 0x05 to 0x 3f to specify tags, a range called the tag code space.
The WBXML specification also defines a code space for Global Tokens, which have special meaning for WBXML parsers, so you can't use them as element codes. For example, 0x00 to 0x04 are Global Tokens.
You may need to add a numeric value to the byte code of each element, depending upon one of the following three scenarios:
- When an element contains content (text nodes or child elements) but no attributes, you add a numeric value of 0x40to the byte code
- When the element contains one or more attributes but no content, add 0x80to the element byte code
- When the element contains both an attribute and content, add 0xC0 to the element bye code.
In the example in Listing 1, the root element <wml> has a byte code of 0x3F. Therefore byte 5 in Table 1 is 0x7f (0x3F + 0x40).
The Card element has byte code 0x27, so byte 6 is 0xE7 (0x27 + 0xC0).
When you include an element with attributes (such as byte 6 in Listing 1), the attribute list follows immediately after the element code. WBXML declares an attribute code space that overlaps with the tag code space (as this overlap does not produce any ambiguity). The global token 0x01 marks the end of the attribute code space —byte number 30 in Table 1. Attribute and element code spaces overlap with each other, but not with the code space for global tokens. Therefore all the content from bytes 6 to 30 in Table 1 is part of the attribute code space.
The attribute code space consists of attribute/value pairs. All valid WML attributes have specific codes in WML's attribute code space. For example the byte 7 is 0x55, which is the code for the id attribute.
Attribute values follow the attribute codes. Each attribute value is a string—either an inline string or a reference into the string table. The example uses an inline string, so the eighth byte (0x03) is a global token signifying that the value is a NULL (0x00) terminated string. Bytes 9-12 form the in-line string, the value of the id attribute, and byte. 13 is the NULL byte specifying the end of the inline string.
The attribute/value pairs continue up through byte 30, after which you'll see the code for a <p> element, 0x60 (0x20 + 0x40).
Byte 30 (0x01) refers to the end of an attribute-value pair list. Look at bytes 78, 100, 101 and 102. They all contain 0x01 as well, but those signify end of element. The global token 0x01 performs both jobs without ambiguity. When 0x01 occurs at the end of the attribute code space, it denotes the end of the attribute-value pair list. Otherwise, it denotes the end of an element.
The 0x01 token marks the close of a tag. Unlike standard XML, the closing mark doesn't specify the name of the element that's being closed. In effect, that means you can only write WBXML for well-formed XML.
You can follow the same logic pattern to match elements, attributes and values through the end of Table 1 and Listing 2.