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Avoid NPE via JDK 8, Optional

Avoid NPE via JDK 8, Optional

Starting with JDK 8, you can avoid NullPointerException by returning an Optional. For example, instead of returning null, this method returns an empty Optional:

public Optional fetchShoppingCart(long id) {    ShoppingCart cart = // code that fetch the card content for the specified id    return Optional.ofNullable(cart);} 

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