`' Ternary QuickSort. See the summary of QuickSort for background before ' reading this one. Ternary QuickSort (also called MultiKey QuickSort) differs ' from the original QuickSort by examining keys one byte at a time (like ' RadixSort), and by handling keys in three categories -- less than pivot,' equal to pivot, and more than pivot -- instead of two. (Separate handling ' of equal keys is why this sort is stable while ordinary QuickSort is not.) ' As in QuickSort, the left and right sublists are processed recursively until ' they are short enough for InsertionSort. The equal-to-pivot sublist is also ' handled recursively, except that a pointer indicating the "depth" of the byte ' to be examined is advanced to the next position before the call. Since ' sublists handed off to InsertionSort consist of keys whose first bytes are ' identical up to DEPTH - 1, we use a special version of InsertionSort that ' compares keys only from DEPTH onward.'' Needs no extra arrays, but uses some stack space for recursion. In practice ' in VBA, I don't find this sort to be as fast as the original QuickSort,' but results may differ in languages that offer faster access to bytes within ' strings. This algorithm is definitely oriented toward strings; see comments ' under MSD Radix Sort on possible adaptation to integers and longs.'' Reference: Jon Bentley and Robert Sedgewick, "Fast Algorithms for Sorting ' and Searching Strings", Proceedings of the 8th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on ' Discrete Algorithms, January 1997. See also http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~rs/' strings/.'' Speed: TernaryQuickSort sorts 500,000 random strings in 39 sec; sorts 100186 ' library call numbers in 14 sec; sorts 25479 dictionary words in 1.8 sec ' (random order), 1.9 sec (presorted) or 1.8 sec (reverse sorted). Timed in ' Excel 2001 on an 800 mhz PowerBook.'' Bottom line: a stable version of QuickSort good for strings,' but not (at least in VBA) as fast as the original.' Usage: Dim S1(L To R) As StringsDim B1(1 To nChars) As ByteDim P1(L To R) As LongFor I = L To R S1(I) = GetRandomString()Next IStrsToBytes S1, L, R, B1, P1 'a routine that stores the strings in 0- ' terminated byte 'arrays with P1() holding pointers to the first ' byte of 'each stringTernaryQuickSort L, R, B1, P1' CODE:Sub TernaryQuickSort(L As Long, R As Long, B() As Byte, P() As Long) TernQuick L, R, B, P, 0End SubSub TernQuick(L As Long, R As Long, B() As Byte, P() As Long, _ ByVal DEPTH As Integer) Dim TMP As Long Dim I As Long Dim J As Long Dim pMED As Long Dim Pivot As Integer Dim OuterL As Long Dim InnerL As Long Dim InnerR As Long Dim OuterR As Long Dim DIF As Long Dim N As Long Dim SwapN As Long Dim NLO As Long Dim NHI As Long Dim NEQ As Long N = 1 + R - L 'Short sublists will be handled by lower overhead InsertionSort. If N > 10 Then 'Get a pivot value from the median of three or nine keys. pMED = BGetMed(B, P, L, N, DEPTH) 'Swap the median into the leftmost position. TMP = P(L) P(L) = P(pMED) P(pMED) = TMP 'Our pivot will be the byte value at DEPTH. Pivot = B(P(L) + DEPTH) 'Set up two pointers on the left and two on the right. OuterL = L InnerL = OuterL OuterR = R InnerR = OuterR Do 'Look for a lefthand key/pointer to swap. Do While InnerL <= InnerR 'DIF is the key's byte minus the Pivot byte. DIF = B(P(InnerL) + DEPTH) - Pivot 'If the key's byte is greater, we've found a pointer to swap to the ' right side. If DIF > 0 Then Exit Do 'If our byte is equal to the Pivot byte, we swap it to the extreme ' left end. If DIF = 0 Then TMP = P(OuterL) P(OuterL) = P(InnerL) P(InnerL) = TMP OuterL = OuterL + 1 End If 'If our byte is less than Pivot, we just scan over it. InnerL = InnerL + 1 Loop 'Now look for a righthand key/pointer to swap. Do While InnerL <= InnerR DIF = B(P(InnerR) + DEPTH) - Pivot 'If the key's byte is less, we've found a pointer to swap to the left ' side. If DIF < 0 Then Exit Do 'If our byte is equal to the Pivot byte, we swap it to the extreme ' right end. If DIF = 0 Then TMP = P(OuterR) P(OuterR) = P(InnerR) P(InnerR) = TMP OuterR = OuterR - 1 End If InnerR = InnerR - 1 Loop 'If the inner pointers have crossed, we're done. If InnerL > InnerR Then Exit Do 'Otherwise, we do the left/right swap we just set up. TMP = P(InnerL) P(InnerL) = P(InnerR) P(InnerR) = TMP InnerL = InnerL + 1 InnerR = InnerR - 1 Loop 'We've arranged pointers to equal bytes on the far left and right, ' pointers to lower bytes 'on the inner left, and pointers to higher bytes on the inner right. Now ' we will swap the 'equals to the center, between the lowers and the highers. NLO = InnerL - OuterL NHI = OuterR - InnerR NEQ = N - (NLO + NHI) If OuterL - L < NLO Then SwapN = OuterL - L Else SwapN = NLO I = L J = InnerL - SwapN 'Move the lefthand equals to center. Do While SwapN > 0 TMP = P(I) P(I) = P(J) P(J) = TMP I = I + 1 J = J + 1 SwapN = SwapN - 1 Loop If R - OuterR < NHI Then SwapN = R - OuterR Else SwapN = NHI I = InnerL J = R + 1 - SwapN 'Move the righthand equals to center. Do While SwapN > 0 TMP = P(I) P(I) = P(J) P(J) = TMP I = I + 1 J = J + 1 SwapN = SwapN - 1 Loop 'If there are more bytes, we increment DEPTH and recurse on the equals. If B(P(L+NLO) + DEPTH) <> 0 Then TernQuick L+NLO, L+NLO+NEQ-1, B, P, _ DEPTH+1 'Now we recurse on the lowers and highers; we do the shorter sublist first ' to hold stack 'depth to log N. If NLO < NHI Then TernQuick L, L + NLO - 1, B, P, DEPTH TernQuick L + NLO + NEQ, L + NLO + NEQ + NHI - 1, B, P, DEPTH Else TernQuick L + NLO + NEQ, L + NLO + NEQ + NHI - 1, B, P, DEPTH TernQuick L, L + NLO - 1, B, P, DEPTH End If Else 'A special version of InsertionSort that compares keys starting at depth ' (since the 'sublists we hand off to it will have identical prefixes. DeepInsertS B, P, L, N, DEPTH End IfEnd SubFunction BGetMed(B() As Byte, P() As Long, L As Long, N As Long, _ DEPTH As Integer) As Long Dim D As Long Dim PL As Long Dim PM As Long Dim PN As Long PL = L PN = L + N - 1 PM = (PL + PN) 2 If N > 30 Then D = N 8 PL = BMed3(B, P, PL, PL + D, PL + 2 * D, DEPTH) PM = BMed3(B, P, PM - D, PM, PM + D, DEPTH) PL = BMed3(B, P, PN - 2 * D, PN - D, PN, DEPTH) End If BGetMed = BMed3(B, P, PL, PM, PN, DEPTH)End FunctionFunction BMed3(B() As Byte, P() As Long, I As Long, J As Long, K As Long, _ DEPTH As Integer) As Long Dim CI As Byte Dim CJ As Byte Dim CK As Byte CI = B(P(I) + DEPTH) CJ = B(P(J) + DEPTH) CK = B(P(K) + DEPTH) If (CI <= CJ And CJ <= CK) Or (CI >= CJ And CJ >= CK) Then BMed3 = J ElseIf (CJ <= CI And CI <= CK) Or (CJ >= CI And CI >= CK) Then BMed3 = I ElseIf (CI <= CK And CK <= CJ) Or (CI >= CK And CK >= CJ) Then BMed3 = K End IfEnd FunctionSub DeepInsertS(B() As Byte, P() As Long, L As Long, N As Long, D As Integer) Dim LP As Long Dim RP As Long Dim TMP As Long Dim I As Long Dim J As Long For RP = L + 1 To L + N - 1 TMP = P(RP) For LP = RP To L + 1 Step -1 I = TMP + D J = P(LP - 1) + D Do While B(I) = B(J) If B(I) = 0 Or B(J) = 0 Then Exit Do I = I + 1 J = J + 1 Loop If CInt(B(I)) - CInt(B(J)) < 0 Then P(LP) = P(LP - 1) Else Exit For Next LP P(LP) = TMP Next RPEnd SubSub Strs2Bytes(A() As String, L As Long, R As Long, B() As Byte, P() As Long) Dim I As Long Dim nPtrs As Long Dim nBytes As Long Dim DEPTH As Integer nBytes = 0 nPtrs = 0 For I = L To R nBytes = nBytes + Strings.Len(A(I)) + 1 nPtrs = nPtrs + 1 Next I ReDim B(1 To nBytes) ReDim P(1 To nPtrs) nPtrs = 1 nBytes = 1 For I = L To R P(nPtrs) = nBytes For DEPTH = 1 To Strings.Len(A(I)) B(nBytes) = Asc(Strings.MID(A(I), DEPTH, 1)) nBytes = nBytes + 1 Next DEPTH B(nBytes) = 0 nBytes = nBytes + 1 nPtrs = nPtrs + 1 Next IEnd Sub`

### GM Creates Open Source uProtocol and Invites Automakers to Adopt It: Revolutionizing Automotive Software Development.

General Motors (GM) recently announced its entry into the Eclipse Foundation. The Eclipse Foundation is a prominent open-source software foundation. In addition, GMC announced its contribution of “uProtocol” to facilitate