Design Patterns for ASP.NET Developers, Part 3: Advanced Patterns

his is the last in a series of three articles that explore the built-in support for standard design patterns in ASP.NET, and ways in which you can implement common patterns in your own applications

The patterns discussed so far in the first two articles in this series (Article 1, Article 2) relate to features that are either automatically implemented by ASP.NET, or are relatively easy to implement as custom features of an application. But those cover only a small proportion of the total number of design patterns, although they include those that are most useful and most commonly implemented within web applications.

The following sections discuss more advanced design patterns typically seen in Windows Forms and other desktop applications, but less often suited for implementation within web applications. However, the overall aims of these patterns?particularly the Command and Event patterns?are laudable, and it is possible to provide a useful modified implementation for ASP.NET applications. See the sidebar “Useful Resources” for a full list of references to patterns and architectural guidance.

The Factory, Builder, and Injection Patterns
The Factory, Builder, and Injection design patterns specify various ways to separate the construction of a complex object from its representation, letting you use the same construction process to create different representations. These patterns are commonly associated with the instantiation of objects from classes, and control the way that the application receives such instances.

In the Factory pattern, subclasses of the object generator determine the object type. An example of the Factory pattern is the DbProviderFactory class in .NET, which generates instances of Connection, Command, and DataAdapter objects specific to a particular provider (such as SqlClient or OleDb) depending on the provider name you specify when you create the DbProviderFactory instance. Other .NET classes, such as XmlReader and XmlWriter, provide a static Create method that returns a pre-configured instance of the specified class.

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Figure 1. The Command Pattern: The Command pattern separates the command invoker from the command receiver, letting developers add and alter actions and commands easily. It also enables a command to initiate multiple actions.

In the Builder and Injection patterns, the client passes instructions or hints to the object generator to specify the required object type. In some implementations, the client can use attributes to specify the class types for injection into the current context. The object builder can set properties and execute methods on the object before returning it. It can also avoid construction overhead, and return an existing instance of an object when appropriate instead of creating a new instance. The Microsoft patterns & practices group provides a utility called ObjectBuilder that incorporates these features as part of the CAB and other software factories.

The Command Pattern
The Command pattern separates the command invoker from the command receiver, allowing developers to add commands and actions to an application without having to relate them directly. This pattern also allows a command to initiate multiple actions (see Figure 1).

The Command pattern is particularly useful in applications that load modules at runtime to extend their functionality. These modules might load in response to user interaction, or because of specific application configuration. As they load, each module can add commands to the application shell, extend the application by adding new actions, and relate the new and existing commands to new and existing actions.

The Observer and Publish-Subscribe Patterns

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Figure 2. The Observer and Publish-Subscribe Patterns: Similar to the Command pattern, but targeted toward application events, these patterns separate event creation from event consumers.

The Observer and Publish-Subscribe patterns separate the creator of an event from the receiver(s), in much the same way as the Command pattern separates commands from actions. The main difference is that the events and actions may not relate to user commands, but to occurrences of specific events within the application (see Figure 2). For example, a data source provider may raise events when it connects to a database and executes a query. Other classes can subscribe to receive this event, allowing them to interact with the source to provide information, change the behavior, or even cancel the process.

The Observer pattern requires that the client or object wishing to receive notifications (the Observer) subscribe this interest to the object that fires the event (the Subject).

The Publish-Subscribe pattern uses an “event channel” that sits between the client or object wishing to receive notifications (the Subscriber) and the object that fires the event (the Publisher). This channel can be the .NET event system, allowing code to create application-specific events that pass a custom “arguments” instance containing values required by the subscriber. The purpose is to avoid dependencies between the Subscriber and the Publisher; therefore?unlike the standard Observer pattern?allowing any Subscriber that implements the appropriate event handler to register for and receive events generated by the Publisher.

Using Commands and Events in ASP.NET
One of the major issues with many standard design patterns when applied in ASP.NET is the difficulty in successfully using events. In a Windows Forms or executable application, an object or window can subscribe to events, and receive these events when they occur?at any time during the lifetime of that object or window. This lifetime can be the same as the main application, meaning objects can raise events at any time and be sure that the subscribers will be active and receive them.

In ASP.NET, however, the “one shot” nature of HTTP and the web page display mechanism means that as soon as the server has finished generating a page and rendering it to the client, it destroys all the objects it used in that page. Therefore, it’s pointless to have server-based components instantiated within an ASP.NET page subscribe to events that may occur when the user requests the next page, or in the period between requests.

For example, in the MVP pattern, the data access layer that implements the Model may raise an event indicating that the underlying data has changed. However, in ASP.NET, the code that generated the View is no longer available and so cannot receive this event. There are ways to implement objects that run as a background service to detect events, and some of the more recent client-side technologies (such as AJAX) attempt to extend the event handling capabilities of web pages using asynchronous background requests. However, these do not provide the same level of event support as in a Windows Forms or executable application.

Of course, events are useful in ASP.NET when all the participating objects are loaded and available within the same page. This approach allows objects to expose events without prior knowledge of the classes and objects that might subscribe to these events, as described in the Publish-Subscribe pattern.

The example application demonstrates both the Publish-Subscribe pattern and a modified Observer pattern that provides a technique for executing methods (effectively, activating commands) on subscriber/observer objects that do not directly depend on the publisher/subject. Both examples implement a fictitious car production line and associated departments such as parts, sales, and transport.

In this example scenario, a client ASPX page creates an instance of the publisher (the production line) and instances of any subscribers (parts, sales, or transport departments) that should receive notification when the production line builds a new car. Each subscriber maintains a count of the number of notifications received, based on the model name of the car. The following sections of this article describe these two implementations.

Implementing the Publish-Subscribe Pattern
The example application demonstrates the Publish-Subscribe pattern by exposing a custom event from the publisher, a class named EventProductionLine, through an associated helper class named BuildCarHelper. The custom event exposes an instance of the BuildCarEventArgs class as its second argument (all these classes are located in the App-Code folder of the downloadable sample code). The BuildCarEventArgs class exposes properties that reflect the requirements of the application, and of the notification that the production line must send to subscribers. In this simple example, the two properties are the model name of the new car, and the date and time it was built:

   public class BuildCarEventArgs : EventArgs   {     // custom arguments class for BuildCarEvent. This simple      // implementation exposes only the model name and build date,      // but could be extended to add any other values/data     private String argsModel;     private DateTime argsDate;        public BuildCarEventArgs(String modelName,        DateTime buildDate)     {       // save model name and build date        argsModel = modelName;       argsDate = buildDate;     }        public String ModelName     {       // public property to expose car model name       get { return argsModel; }       set { argsModel = value; }     }     ...     public DateTime BuildDate     {       // public property to expose build date       get { return argsDate; }       set { argsDate = value; }     }   }

The BuildCarHelper class publishes an event named BuildCarEvent, which it raises when the production line builds a new car. The code first declares the BuildCarEvent event handler. Note that its BuildCarEventArgs argument uses C# Generics syntax (to use this syntax, you must include in your class a reference to the System.Collections.Generics namespace):

   public class BuildCarHelper   {     // event that this Helper class exposes to subscribers     public event EventHandler BuildCarEvent;     ...

The helper class exposes a method named Notify that a publisher can call to notify all subscribers when it builds a new car. The code in this method first extracts any values it requires from the EventProductionLine instance passed to it, and then creates an instance of the BuildCarEventArgs class with the appropriate values. Finally, it calls a separate method that raises the event through the .NET event system using the approach recommended by Microsoft that avoids a race condition if a subscribed class instance un-subscribes while the code is executing:

   public void Notify(Object publisher)   {     // raise the event to notify all subscribers using     // the custom event arguments class     String carName = (publisher as        EventProductionLine).CurrentMotorCarName;     BuildCarEventArgs args = new BuildCarEventArgs(       carName, DateTime.Now);     // call method to publish event using standard     // approach defined by MS for events - see .NET docs at     // http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/     //   library/w369ty8x(VS.80).aspx     OnBuildCarEvent(args);   }      // wrap event invocations inside a protected virtual method   // to allow derived classes to override the event invocation    // behavior   protected virtual void OnBuildCarEvent(BuildCarEventArgs e)   {     // make a temporary copy of the event to avoid possibility of     // a race condition if the last subscriber un-subscribes     // immediately after the null check and before the event      // is raised.     EventHandler handler = BuildCarEvent;     // event will be null if there are no subscribers     if (handler != null)     {       // use the () operator to raise the event.       handler(this, e);     }   }

The following code shows the EventProductionLine class in the example application. It creates an instance of the BuildCarHelper class that it will use to raise the BuildCarEvent, and exposes it as a public property. Exposing the helper instance as a property of the EventProductionLine class means that the client application can reference the helper to subscribe to any events it exposes?in this simple example just the BuildCarEvent:

   public class EventProductionLine   {     // holds a reference to an instance of the helper class that      // raises the event to notify any subscribers      private BuildCarHelper internalHelper = null;     // name of car currently being built     private String carName = String.Empty;        public EventProductionLine()     {       // class constructor       // get new helper class instance       internalHelper = new BuildCarHelper(this);     }        public BuildCarHelper Helper     {       // property that exposes the helper instance       get { return internalHelper; }     }

The publisher will usually expose other methods that the helper class can access as it creates the custom BuildCarEventArgs instance. In this example, the only other property exposed by the EventProductionLine class returns the name of the car it is currently building.

The remaining code is the BuildNewMotorCar method that the client will call when it wants the production line to build a specific model of car?as specified by the parameter to this method. In the method, the code saves the name of the car in a local variable so that the CurrentMotorCarName property can expose it, does whatever work is required to build the car, and then calls the Notify method of the associated BuildCarHelper instance to raise the BuildCarEvent to all subscribed clients:

     // any properties required to expose data that the     // subscribers may need to use. These property values      // must be wrapped inside the custom args class that the      // Helper uses when raising the event     public String CurrentMotorCarName     {       get { return carName; }     }        // main method for class—this is called by      // the subject to accomplish the main tasks. There can      // be more methods, but each must call the      // Notify or other equivalent method of the helper to      // raise an event     public void BuildNewMotorCar(String motorCarName)     {       // save value of car name       carName = motorCarName;          // do whatever work required here       // ...          // notify all subscribers       internalHelper.Notify(this);     }   }

The subscriber implementations in the example application maintain a Hashtable in the user’s session that contains a count of each new car built by the current instance of the EventProductionLine class. In the constructor of each subscriber class, code looks for a Hashtable using the relevant session key declared in a local String constant at the start of the class file, and stores this Hashtable in a local variable. If there is no stored Hashtable, the code creates an empty one. As an example, here’s the relevant code from the EventPartsDept class:

   public class EventPartsDept   {     Hashtable partsUsed = null;     const String SESSION_KEY_NAME = "SavedPartsCount";        public EventPartsDept()     {       // class constructor, get saved Hashtable from        // session if available        if (HttpContext.Current.Session[SESSION_KEY_NAME] != null)       {         partsUsed = (Hashtable)            HttpContext.Current.Session[SESSION_KEY_NAME];       }       else       {         // create new empty Hashtable         partsUsed = new Hashtable();       }     }

Publish-Subscribe Implementation (continued)
Subscribers to the BuildCarEvent are not dependent on the EventProductionLine class. However, they must implement an event handler for the BuildCarEvent that the EventProductionLine class raises through its helper class. The code in that event handler can extract the values from the BuildCarEventArgs instance to get information about the event. In the following example, the code updates the Hashtable containing the count of each model built, and stores it in the session:

   public void BuildCarEventHandler(Object sender, BuildCarEventArgs args)   {     // the calling code links this to the BuildCarEvent so that     // it executes automatically when a new car is built     // code can query properties of custom BuildCarEventArgs     // class to get information about the event if required     String carName = args.ModelName;        // then increment count of cars built     if (partsUsed.ContainsKey(carName))     {       partsUsed[carName] = (Int32)partsUsed[carName] + 1;     }     else     {       partsUsed.Add(carName, 1);     }     // save count in session     HttpContext.Current.Session[SESSION_KEY_NAME] = partsUsed;   }

Of course, the subscriber classes will also expose methods and properties appropriate to their individual tasks. In the example application, they expose only the Hashtable containing the count of each car built so that the client code can display the results:

   public Hashtable CountOfPartsUsed   {     // expose the count of notifications as a property     get { return partsUsed; }   }

In the sample application the ASPX page named TransferPage4.aspx demonstrates the Publish-Subscribe implementation just described. When a user clicks the “Build Car” button, the click-handler code begins by creating an EventProductionLine class instance and instances of the three subscriber classes: EventPartsDept, EventTransportDept, and EventSalesDept (all located in the App-Code folder of the example). Here’s the code:

   protected void btn_Build_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)   {     // create instance of subject class will raise the      // BuildCarEvent through its helper class BuildCarHelper     EventProductionLine pLine = new EventProductionLine();        // create instances of required subscriber classes      EventPartsDept parts = new EventPartsDept();     EventTransportDept transport = new EventTransportDept();     EventSalesDept sales = new EventSalesDept();

Next, the page must subscribe the three “subscriber” classes to the BuildCarEvent event. Depending on the settings of three checkboxes in the page, the code adds the BuildCarEvent handler of each subscriber class to the BuildCarEvent of the helper instance associated with the current EventProductionLine instance. Then it can call the EventProductionLine’s BuildNewMotorCar method, specifying the model name selected in the drop-down list in the ASPX page. This sends the BuildCarEvent to each subscriber. The code continues by displaying the resulting values from the Hashtable instance of each subscriber:

     // subscribe the appropriate instances to the BuildCarEvent      // of the publisher (the EventProductionLine class) according      // to the checkbox settings in the page.     if (chk_Parts.Checked)     {       pLine.Helper.BuildCarEvent += parts.BuildCarEventHandler;     }     if (chk_Transport.Checked)     {       pLine.Helper.BuildCarEvent +=          transport.BuildCarEventHandler;     }     if (chk_Sales.Checked)     {       pLine.Helper.BuildCarEvent += sales.BuildCarEventHandler;     }        // call the main method of the subject class to do the     // actual work required, specifying any properties required     // (in this example, just the name of the car to build)     pLine.BuildNewMotorCar(lstCarName.SelectedValue);        // display counter values from subscribers to show that they     // were notified by the EventProductionLine main routine     lblResults.Text += "Cars to deliver: " +        ShowAllCarsCount(transport.CountOfCarsToDeliver);     lblResults.Text += "Cars available to sell: " +        ShowAllCarsCount(sales.CountOfCarsBuilt);     lblResults.Text += "Parts to order: " +        ShowAllCarsCount(parts.CountOfPartsUsed);   }
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Figure 3. Sample Application: The figure shows the sample application demonstrating the Publish-Subscribe pattern.

The only other relevant code in the client page is the ShowAllCarsCount routine called by the btn_Build_Click event handler shown above. The ShowAllCarsCount routine simply iterates through the items in the Hashtable to concatenate a string that the application uses to display the car model names and counts:

   private String ShowAllCarsCount(Hashtable values)   {     // get list of car models and count as a String     String result = String.Empty;     foreach (DictionaryEntry item in values)     {       result += item.Key.ToString() + ":" +          item.Value.ToString() + " ";     }     return result + "
"; }

Figure 3 shows the example page after building a few cars and changing the settings in the three checkboxes so that only some subscribers receive each event.

Author’s Note: You can open this page by selecting either “Publish-Subscribe” or “TransferPage4.aspx” in the drop-down list at the bottom of the Default.aspx page.

A Combined Command-Observer Pattern
A modified version of the Observer pattern can provide most of the features of the Command and the Publish-Subscribe patterns in ASP.NET. It provides for separation of the Observer and the Subject by using an interface that defines the requirements of each Observer?in much the same way as an EventHandler class defines the nature of an event in the Publish-Subscribe pattern that a subscriber can handle. A Helper class, referenced through the Subject, maintains a list of Observers and can call the appropriate method on each one when a specified action takes place on the Subject.

In this implementation, the client or application code creates instances of the Observer objects that it wants the Subject to notify when an action occurs. For example, in the sample application, the code creates instances of a PartsDept, a TransportDept, and a SalesDept as Observer objects. It then subscribes these objects to a Helper class that maintains an internal list of subscribed Observers (see Figure 4).

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Figure 4. Subscription in the Command-Observer Implementation: The figure shows how an application creates Observer object instances that subscribe to messages from the Subject class through a helper class that maintains a list of subscribed Observers.
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Figure 5. Notification in the Command-Observer Implementation: The diagram shows the sequence of events when a client calls a method on the Subject that raises events to which various Observer instances have subscribed.

The client application then calls a method on the ProductionLine class (the Subject)?an instance of which it has previously created. The ProductionLine class holds a reference to the Helper class, and calls its Notify method. The Helper class then calls the Update method on each subscribed Observer instance (see Figure 5).

Effectively, this provides a technique where the client can add commands (Observers) to a Subject without the Subject being previously aware of the nature of the target?as long as that target implements the Observer interface. At minimum, the Observer interface must expose an Update event that the Helper class can call. Depending on the nature of the implementation and requirements, the interface can specify the parameters to pass to the Observer and other methods or properties that it must expose.

Implementation of the Command-Observer Pattern
The example application demonstrates the Command-Observer pattern with an application that looks and behaves exactly the same way as the Publish-Subscribe pattern implementation shown earlier in this article. The difference is in the way that the classes interact when the publisher/subject sends notifications to each subscriber/observer instance.

To provide independence between the observer and subject, each Observer implements an interface named IObserver. This allows classes to reference observer instances using the interface definition rather than the actual class type of the observer. Alternatively, you could create a base class that contains common observer functionality, and use that rather than an interface definition.

In this simple example, the IObserver interface defines only a single method, named Update, which each observer must implement. The subject calls this method through its helper class to notify each observer whenever it builds a new car:

   public interface IObserver   {     // observed objects must provide a method      // that updates its content or performs the     // appropriate actions     void Update(Object subject);   }

As in the Publish-Subscribe example, the Command-Observer implementation uses a helper class to raise the notification to all observers. This class, named ObserverHelper, maintains an internal ArrayList that contains references to each subscribed observer. The class exposes methods for adding or removing observers from the list, using the IObserver interface to maintain independence between concrete classes.

The ObserverHelper class also exposes the Notify method, which the subject calls to notify all observers when the relevant action occurs in the subject class. The Notify method simply iterates through the list of subscribed observers, calling the Update method on each one, passing a reference to the subject (which is passed into the Notify method as a parameter):

   public class ObserverHelper   {     private ArrayList observerList = new ArrayList();        public void AddObserver(IObserver observer)     // subscribe an observer by adding them to the list     {       observerList.Add(observer);     }        public void RemoveObserver(IObserver observer)     // unsubscribe an observer by removing them from the list     {       observerList.Remove(observer);     }        public void Notify(Object subject)     // notify all subscribed observers     {       foreach(IObserver observer in observerList)       {         // call update method on all subscribed observers         observer.Update(subject);       }     }   }

The subject class, named ProductionLine in this example, carries out the main tasks of the application. It maintains a reference to an associated ObserverHelper instance created in its constructor and exposed through the ObserverHelper property?in the same way the previous Publish-Subscribe example exposed its BuildCarHelper class:

   public class ProductionLine   {     // holds a reference to an instance of the helper      // class that handles subscriptions and notifies all the      // subscribed observers     private ObserverHelper internalHelper = null;        // name of car currently being built     private String carName = String.Empty;        // class constructor     public ProductionLine(String motorCarName)     {       // get new help class instance       internalHelper = new ObserverHelper();     }        // property that exposes the helper instance     public ObserverHelper Helper     {       get { return internalHelper; }     }

In addition, like the Publish-Subscribe example, the ProductionLine class in this example exposes the name of the car it is currently building as a property, and a method named BuildNewMotorCar that saves the car model name in the local variable and calls the Notify method of its associated helper class:

     // any properties required to expose data that the      // observers may need to use. Actual properties depend on      // actions of subject and observer, but using properties      // maintains interface independence     public String CurrentMotorCarName     {       get { return carName; }     }        // main method for class - this is called by the client      // to carry out the main tasks. Can expose more methods,      // but each must call the Notify method of the associated      // helper instance     public void BuildNewMotorCar(String motorCarName)     {       // save value of car name       carName = motorCarName;          // do whatever work required here       // ...          // notify all subscribed observers       internalHelper.Notify(this);     }   }

Command-Observer Pattern Implementation (continued)
The three observer-class implementations in this example, PartsDept, TransportDept, and SalesDept, maintain an internal Hashtable that holds a count of the number of each car model built, and stores it in the user’s session, in exactly the same way as the Publish-Subscribe pattern example. These classes also expose this Hashtable as a property so that client applications can access it.

The main differences between the Publish-Subscribe and Command-Observer examples are that the observer classes in the Command-Observer example implement the IObserver interface, and therefore each must expose an Update method.

The Update method is the equivalent of the event handler in the Publish-Subscribe example. It casts the received object (passed to the method as a parameter instead of an event argument instance) into an instance of the ProductionLine class, and extracts any property values it requires. Then the method can update the Hashtable and store it back in the user’s session. Here’s the Update method implementation in the PartsDept observer class:

   public void Update(Object subject)   {     // called by ObserverHelper.Notify method. Do any      // work required in Observer class here. Parameter is      // the instance of the subject class, so code can query      // its properties if required     String carName = (subject as ProductionLine).       CurrentMotorCarName;     // in this example, just increment count of parts used     if (partsUsed.ContainsKey(carName))     {       partsUsed[carName] = (Int32)partsUsed[carName] + 1;     }     else     {       partsUsed.Add(carName, 1);     }     // save count in session     HttpContext.Current.Session[SESSION_KEY_NAME] = partsUsed;   }

You can find the client code that demonstrates the Command-Observer pattern in the ASPX page named TransferPage5.aspx. When you click the “Build Car” button on that page, the page code creates instances of the main ProductionLine class, and the three observer classes PartsDept, TransportDept, and SalesDept. Then, depending on the settings of the three checkboxes, it subscribes these observers?this time by calling the AddObserver method of the helper class associated with the current ProductionLine instance.

Then the code calls the BuildNewMotorCar method, specifying the model name selected in the drop-down list in the ASPX page. This notifies each subscribed observer, and the code continues by displaying the resulting values from the Hashtable of each observer using the same ShowAllCarsCount method as the previous example:

   protected void btn_Build_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)   {     // create instance of subject class that contains     // the method that will notify subscribed observers     ProductionLine pLine = new ProductionLine();        // create instances of classes that will observe the subject      //(the ProductionLine class) and get notified when required.      // any class that implements IObserver can be used here     PartsDept parts = new PartsDept();     TransportDept transport = new TransportDept();     SalesDept sales = new SalesDept();        // subscribe the observers according to settings in the page     if (chk_Parts.Checked)     {       pLine.Helper.AddObserver(parts);     }     if (chk_Transport.Checked)     {       pLine.Helper.AddObserver(transport);     }     if (chk_Sales.Checked)     {       pLine.Helper.AddObserver(sales);     }
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Figure 6. Command-Observer Pattern: Here's the sample application showing how it uses the Command-Observer pattern.
// call the main method of the subject class // to do the actual work required, specifying // any properties required (in this example, // just the name of the car to build). pLine.BuildNewMotorCar(lstCarName.SelectedValue); // display counter values from observers to show that they // were notified by the ProductionLine main routine lblResults.Text += "Cars to deliver: " + ShowAllCarsCount(transport.CountOfCarsToDeliver); lblResults.Text += "Cars available to sell: " + ShowAllCarsCount(sales.CountOfCarsBuilt); lblResults.Text += "Parts to order: " + ShowAllCarsCount(parts.CountOfPartsUsed); }

Figure 6 shows result of the Command-Observer pattern example after building a few cars and changing the settings in the three checkboxes so that only some observers subscribe to the notification each time.

Author’s Note: You can open this page by selecting either “Command-Observer” or “TransferPage5.aspx” in the drop-down list at the bottom of the Default.aspx page.

Summing Up ASP.NET Design Patterns
From the various patterns discussed in this article series (see the Related References for links to the previous articles), it is possible to draw the following conclusions:

  • The MVP and the various Controller patterns are useful, but firing update events from the Model usually is not.
  • The Page Controller and Front Controller patterns allow for custom use-case behavior by showing different views or activating different presenters. Front Controller can make use of the Intercepting Filter pattern.
  • The Repository pattern is useful for virtualization of source data.
  • The Singleton pattern is useful for reducing the need for multiple instances.
  • The Service Agent and Proxy patterns are ideal for interacting with remote services.
  • The Provider pattern is useful for accessing various types of data sources.
  • The Adapter pattern is useful for extending ASP.NET controls.
  • The Factory, Builder, Injection, Observer, and Command patterns are less useful, more complex, and can be difficult to implement.
  • Event-driven patterns such as the Publish-Subscribe pattern that rely on subscribers having a long lifetime are difficult to implement due to the nature of ASP.NET, and are probably not viable. However, the Publish-Subscribe pattern is useful if all subscribes are instantiated within the current page lifetime.
  • The composite event-free Command-Observer pattern approach is useful for removing dependencies between classes.
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