Abstract Data Types Versus Abstract Classes

The terms abstract data type and abstract class refer to two entirely different concepts, although both of them use the word ‘abstract’ due to a historical accident. An abstract data type (also called a concrete type) is a self-contained, user-defined type that bundles data with a set of related operations. It behaves in the same way as a built-in type does. However, it does not inherit from other classes, nor does it serve as the base for other derived classes. Some examples of abstract data types or concrete types include std::string, std::complex, and std::vector. In contrast, an abstract class is anything but an abstract data type. An abstract class is a class that has at least one pure virtual member function. It is not a data type (normally, abstract classes do not contain any data members), nor can you instantiate an object thereof. An abstract class is merely a skeletal interface, which specifies a set of services that its subclasses implement. Unfortunately, the distinction between the two concepts is often confused. Many people erroneously use the term abstract data type when they actually refer to an abstract class.

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