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Building Duplex WCF Services

Take a look at how you can program duplex services using WCF.


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Take advantage of the duplex message exchange pattern to send messages from the server to the connected clients in WCF.

The Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) is a Microsoft programming framework that enables developers to implement service-oriented applications. WCF supports messaging and can be used to design and implement platform-independent, scalable services. Microsoft created WCF to unify a number of enterprise technologies under one model. WCF was introduced as part of .NET Framework 3.0 and Visual Studio 2005. The latest stable version is WCF 4.5. This article takes a look at how you can program duplex services using WCF.

What are duplex WCF Services?

Generally, a service resides on the server side and they are consumed by applications on the client side – these are also known as service consumers or service clients. When working with WCF services you can implement a two-way communication as well. Such services in WCF are known as Duplex services. Duplex services are also known as callbacks and can invoke a method on the client.

Message Exchange Patterns in WCF

There are three message exchange patterns in WCF. These include the following:



One Way-- this is a message exchange pattern in which the client sends a request to the server and doesn't need any response from the server. You should turn one way message exchange by specifying "IsOneWay = true" in the operation contract of the service. Here's an example of a service contract that specifies one way operation in its operation contract.

[ServiceContract]
    public interface ICustomers
    {
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay=true)]
        public void DeleteCustomer(int customerID);
    }

Request-response-- this is the commonly used message exchange pattern used in service oriented applications that leverage WCF. In this mode of operation the service consumer sends a message to the server and then the service running at the server processes the request and sends a response. Note that you needn't specify anything extra to provide support for this message exchange pattern as the default value of the IsOneWay property is false. The following code snippet illustrates how you can use the request-response message exchange pattern in your service operation in WCF.

[ServiceContract]
    public interface ICustomers
    {
        [OperationContract]
        public void DeleteCustomer(int customerID);
    }

Duplex is a two way message exchange pattern in WCF. In this pattern the service provider and the service consumer can communicate independently of each other. In this message exchange pattern both the server and the client endpoints can send messages to each other independently. After the service client connects to the service, it provides a channel for the service running at the server to send messages back to the client.

Implementing a Duplex WCF Service

In this section we'll explore how we can build a duplex service using WCF. The first step to build a duplex service using WCF is creating the service contract and the service callback contract and then implementing the service contract and specifying the necessary service configuration.

The following code listing shows the declaration of the duplex service and the duplex service callback interfaces.

using System.Runtime.Serialization;
using System.ServiceModel;
namespace Duplex
{
    [ServiceContract(CallbackContract = typeof(IDuplexServiceCallback))]
    public interface IDuplexService
    {
        [OperationContract]
        void MyDuplexMethod();
    }
    public interface IDuplexServiceCallback
    {
        [OperationContract]
        void OnCallback();
    }
}

We would use wsDualHttpBinding here to provide support for duplex communication. Here's how the service configuration file needs to be configured.

<services>
      <service name="Duplex.DuplexService">
        <endpoint address="" binding="wsDualHttpBinding" contract="Duplex.IDuplexService">
          <identity>
            <dns value="localhost" />
          </identity>
        </endpoint>
        <endpoint address="mex" binding="mexHttpBinding" contract="IMetadataExchange" />
        <host>
          <baseAddresses>
            <add baseAddress="http://localhost:9000/DuplexService/Duplex/" />
          </baseAddresses>
        </host>
      </service>
    </services>

The next step is to host the WCF you have created. You can take advantage of a console application to do this.

static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            var serviceHost = new ServiceHost(typeof(DuplexService));
            serviceHost.Open();
            Console.WriteLine("Service started ...");
            Console.WriteLine("Press key to stop the service.");
            Console.ReadLine();
            serviceHost.Close();
        }

Now that the service and the service host is ready, you can implement the client application that would typically consist of a callback class and a console application. The following is the callback class that defines the OnCallback method.

public class DuplexServiceCallback : IDuplexServiceCallback
    {
        public void OnCallback()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Callback at {0}", DateTime.Now);
        }
    }

The last step is to implement the client application that makes use of the callback class we just implemented. Here's the complete code for your reference.

using DuplexServiceClient.DuplexServiceReference;
using System;
using System.ServiceModel;
namespace DuplexServiceClient
{
    public class DuplexServiceCallback : IDuplexServiceCallback
    {
        public void OnCallback()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Callback at {0}", DateTime.Now);
        }
    }
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            try
            {
                DuplexServiceCallback callback = new DuplexServiceCallback();
                var instanceContext = new InstanceContext(callback);
                var client = new DuplexServiceReference.DuplexServiceClient(instanceContext);
                client.Open();
            }
            catch
            { }
            Console.ReadLine();
        }
    }
}

And, you are done! You would now need to start the service and then the client to see the callback in action!

Summary

WCF provides you a programming model and a framework that has support for interoperable, reliable, secure communication. In essence, it provides a framework for designing and developing a service-oriented messaging system that is reliable and transacted. This article presented a discussion on duplex services and explored how we can build duplex services using WCF.



   
Joydip Kanjilal has over 10 years of industry experience with C, C++, Java, C#, VB, VC++, ASP.Net, XML, Design Patterns, UML, etc. He currently works as a senior project leader in a reputable multinational company in Hyderabad, India, and has contributed articles on .NET and related technologies to www.aspalliance.com.
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