Martian rocks have journeyed to Earth, and researchers are utilizing a nuclear reactor to ascertain their age with the goal of understanding more about the history of the Red Planet. Most of these meteorites from Mars are thought to have come from Olympus Mons, the solar system’s largest volcano, which means they are likely only several hundred million years old. However, some argue that these Martian meteorites may have originated from other parts of Mars, making their potential age much older and more diverse. By accurately determining their age, scientists can better comprehend the geological processes and evolution of Mars, ultimately painting a clearer picture of its history and potentially explaining its current state in comparison to Earth.
Research collaboration and new techniques
Volcanologist Dr. Ben Cohen from the University of Glasgow has collaborated with a team consisting of members from the Natural History Museum, the University of Edinburgh, and American researchers to accurately determine the age of these Martian meteorites. Even though there is already evidence proving these rocks come from Mars, pinpointing their specific location on the planet is difficult due to the numerous impact craters present. As a result of this collaboration, the team has developed a cutting-edge technique employing electron microscopy and crystallography to narrow down potential source regions on Mars. This innovative method not only provides crucial data on the geologic history of Mars but also offers a promising tool in the search for past life on the planet.
Argon-argon technique and age determination
In order to resolve this issue, the team employed the ‘argon-argon’ technique, which calculates the decay rate from potassium-40 isotope to argon-40 isotope. The scientists inserted small fragments of seven Martian meteorites into a nuclear reactor used solely for research, enabling them to precisely gauge argon levels while considering any potential argon gain during the time the rocks were in space and making adjustments for contamination. This method provided a more accurate age determination for the meteorites, shedding light on the formation of Mars and its geological timeline. The findings obtained through this innovative approach have allowed researchers to better understand the history of the Red Planet and the processes that shaped its surface.
Shergottite Age Paradox
The results revealed the Shergottite Age Paradox, highlighting the age discrepancy between Mars’ surface and the found meteorites. This paradox raises intriguing questions about the planet’s geological history and the processes that led to the formation of these meteorites. It also encourages further research on Martian materials to gain a better understanding of the Red Planet’s evolution and its potential to host life.
Volcanic activity and Martian meteorite formation
While the surface of Mars is between three and four billion years old, the shergottite meteorites, which constitute around three-quarters of all Martian meteorites, are merely a few hundred million years old. This intriguing age difference has led scientists to investigate the processes that gave rise to these relatively young shergottite meteorites. Recent studies suggest that volcanic activity on Mars may be responsible for their formation, potentially providing insights into the planet’s geological history and potential habitability.
Role of regolith in Martian meteorite age
According to Dr. Cohen, this can be attributed to volcanic activity on Mars producing a layer of brittle rock known as regolith. This regolith layer not only covers the surface but also contributes to the overall instability in the crust. Furthermore, the constant geological transformations on the Martian surface make it difficult for scientists to predict and identify potentially dangerous areas of instability.
Rejuvenation of Martian surface material
As this layer accumulates, newer volcanic eruptions propel fresher rocks to the surface, diminishing the probability of older rocks being launched into space. Consequently, a majority of meteorites originating from Mars consist of younger volcanic rocks, providing scientists with valuable information about the planet’s geological history. The constant cycling and rejuvenation of Martian surface material gives researchers crucial insights into the volcanic processes and the formation of Mars’ crust over time.
Implications for space exploration and planetary knowledge
This innovative research not only uncovers more about our solar system’s history but also supports ongoing studies of meteorites and Mars missions, such as Mars 2020 (Perseverance rover), Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity rover), and ExoMars. Furthermore, the findings offer insight into the processes that shaped and formed the planets within our solar system, specifically in regards to their composition and development. As a result, they provide valuable information for future space exploration endeavors and the potential identification of viable resources for human exploration beyond Earth.
First Reported on: indiatoday.in
Frequently Asked Questions
Why is it important to determine the age of Martian meteorites?
By accurately determining the age of Martian meteorites, scientists can better comprehend the geological processes and evolution of Mars. This ultimately paints a clearer picture of its history and potentially explains its current state in comparison to Earth.
What is the argon-argon technique?
The argon-argon technique calculates the decay rate from potassium-40 isotope to argon-40 isotope. By measuring this decay rate, scientists can accurately determine the age of certain rocks and materials, such as Martian meteorites.
What is the Shergottite Age Paradox?
The Shergottite Age Paradox refers to the age discrepancy between Mars’ surface and the found meteorites. While the surface of Mars is between three and four billion years old, the shergottite meteorites are only a few hundred million years old, raising intriguing questions about the planet’s geological history and the processes that led to the formation of these meteorites.
How does volcanic activity play a role in the age of Martian meteorites?
Volcanic activity on Mars is thought to be responsible for the formation of the relatively young shergottite meteorites. As newer volcanic eruptions propel fresher rocks to the surface, the probability of older rocks being launched into space diminishes. This results in the majority of Martian meteorites consisting of younger volcanic rocks.
What is regolith, and how does it contribute to Martian meteorite age?
Regolith is a layer of brittle rock that is produced by volcanic activity on Mars. This layer covers the surface and contributes to the overall instability in the crust. The constant geological transformations on the Martian surface make it difficult for scientists to predict and identify potentially dangerous areas of instability.
How do the findings of this research affect future space exploration and planetary knowledge?
The research findings offer insight into the processes that shaped and formed the planets within our solar system, specifically in regards to their composition and development. In addition, the information provided supports ongoing studies of meteorites and Mars missions, potentially identifying viable resources for human exploration beyond Earth.
Featured Image Credit: Photo by Daniele Colucci; Unsplash; Thank you!