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Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

Definition

The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is a method used by server to authenticate identity of remote clients. During the process, the server sends a ‘challenge’ to the client, which responds with a cryptographic ‘handshake’ derived from a shared secret, such as a password. This protocol provides a higher level of security as passwords are not transmitted, but are used to generate responses to challenges.

Phonetic

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol: – Challenge: /ˈCHalənj/- Handshake: /ˈhandˌSHāk/- Authentication: /əwˌTHenˈtiˈkāSH(ə)n/- Protocol: /ˈprōdəˌkôl/Please note that the phonetics provided are in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) system.

Key Takeaways

<ol><li>Purpose: Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is primarily designed to authenticate network users. It provides an extra layer of security by periodically verifying the identity of the user, without resending the original password.</li><li>Process: In CHAP, after the establishment of an initial connection, the server sends a “challenge” message to the client. The client responds with a value generated using a one-way hash function. The server checks the response against its own calculation of the expected hash value. If the values match, the authentication is acknowledged; otherwise, the connection is usually terminated.</li><li>Security: CHAP provides a more secure method of authentication than plaintext password authentication methods because the passwords are not sent over the network. However, it is still vulnerable to some attacks, such as the dictionary attack, if simple, easily guessable passwords are used.</li></ol>

Importance

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is significant in technology as it provides an essential layer of security for remote server connections. Its importance lies in its protocol methodology, which requires the periodic verification of the user’s login credentials. This provides an enhanced level of protection compared to traditional one-time authentication methods, as the user’s credentials are repeatedly confirmed throughout the connection. Therefore, even if a hacker intercepts these credentials, they will not be able to access the system beyond the immediate verification window. This protocol is widely used in various network protocols such as PPP and VPN, underlying its crucial role in preserving internet security and data integrity.

Explanation

The primary function of the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is to validate a user’s identity in an information system, specifically in networking scenarios. It does so not by merely verifying a static password, but by employing a more dynamic process that employs a system of ‘challenges’ and ‘responses’. This enhances the protocol’s strength and security – it is a method commonly found in Point-to-Point connections and Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol virtual private networks. When a system using CHAP starts, the server challenges the client or system attempting to gain access by sending a random value to the client. The client then responds with a hashed value, usually encrypted with MD5 cryptographic hash function, that was derived from the user’s password. The server, which already has stored the hashed value corresponding with the user’s password, then compares this with the response of the client. If they match, the user is considered authenticated. As such, CHAP can ensure a high level security since the actual password is not transmitted over the network, thus minimizing the risk of interception by unauthorized entities or parties.

Examples

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is an authentication protocol often used in networking and VPNs. Here are three real-world examples of its use.1. Internet Service Providers (ISP): Many ISPs use CHAP to authenticate the identity of dial-up connections. When you connect to the internet, your computer sends the ISP your credentials, and the ISP responds with a challenge, usually a random number. The credentials and the random number are combined and encrypted, and then sent back to the ISP, which only then allows you to connect.2. Virtual Private Networks (VPN): VPNs often use CHAP as part of their authentication process. This is to ensure that only authorized individuals can access the network. Similar to the way ISPs use the protocol, the VPN service will send a challenge to the user, who must respond with the correct credentials and challenge response to gain access.3. Remote Access Services (RAS): RAS, like Windows-based RAS, for example, use CHAP during their authentication processes. This is critical in a corporate environment where secure connections are crucial. The process is similar to the previous examples, with a randomized challenge sent by the server that requires proper response from the user.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

Q: What is the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)?A: CHAP is a type of authentication in which the user’s identity is authenticated by a server using a three-way handshake.Q: How does CHAP work?A: Once the link is established, the server sends a challenge message to the client. The client responds using a predefined algorithm to create a response. The server confirms the response, and if right, the client authentication is successful.Q: Is CHAP cycle repeated during the connection?A: Yes, the authentication sequence can be re-challenged at any time by the server.Q: What is the importance of the CHAP protocol?A: CHAP ensures that a user is authentic while also protecting against people trying to steal or guess a user’s password.Q: What is the advantage of CHAP over Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)?A: CHAP is more secure as it doesn’t transmit passwords in plain text while communicating between server and client. PAP, on the other hand, does this, which puts security at risk.Q: Where is CHAP commonly used?A: CHAP is commonly used in Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connections and many Virtual Private Network (VPN) types.Q: Is CHAP bi-directional?A: Yes, both local and remote systems must pass the CHAP test. This is established on the initial link and consistently throughout the connection.Q: Can CHAP prevent the play-back attack?A: Yes, because CHAP uses a variable challenge value each time the authentication is performed. As a result, it provides protection again play-back attacks.

Related Finance Terms

  • Network Authentication
  • Password Encryption
  • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
  • Security Protocols
  • Client-Server Communications

Sources for More Information

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