Fraud over Internet Protocol


Fraud over Internet Protocol (FoIP) is a malicious technique where cybercriminals exploit internet-based communication systems, such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Messaging over Internet Protocol, to conduct fraudulent activities. These activities may include identity theft, scam calls, phishing, and unauthorized financial transactions. FoIP allows attackers to deceive and manipulate users easily and at low costs while remaining relatively anonymous and difficult to trace.


The phonetic pronunciation of the keyword “Fraud over Internet Protocol” is: /ˈfrôd ˈōvər ˈin(t)ərˌnet prəˈtəkəl/Fraud: /ˈfrôd/,over: /ˈōvər/,Internet: /ˈin(t)ərˌnet/,Protocol: /prəˈtəkəl/

Key Takeaways

  1. Fraud over Internet Protocol (FoIP) involves cybercriminals manipulating internet-based communication systems, such as Voice over IP (VoIP), to conduct scams and steal sensitive information from unsuspecting users.
  2. Common FoIP attacks include vishing (voice phishing), swatting, and Caller ID spoofing, which can result in financial or personal losses and potentially endanger the well-being of victims.
  3. To protect against FoIP, users need to stay vigilant, employ strong security measures such as multi-factor authentication, and regularly update software and hardware to minimize the risk of falling prey to these scams.


The term “Fraud over Internet Protocol (FoIP)” is important because it highlights the growing issue of fraudulent activities carried out through internet-based communication systems, such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and other messaging platforms.

With the increasing reliance on digital communication, cybercriminals are exploiting vulnerabilities and utilizing advanced techniques to deceive victims, impersonate legitimate businesses, or commit other malicious acts.

FoIP not only impacts individuals but also businesses and government organizations, leading to financial loss, identity theft, and reduced trust in digital communication systems.

Therefore, it is crucial to raise awareness about FoIP, implement robust cybersecurity measures, and stay vigilant to prevent and mitigate the risks associated with such fraudulent activities.


Fraud over Internet Protocol (FoIP) is a malicious practice that primarily aims to deceive unsuspecting individuals or organizations through the exploitation of IP-based communication systems. In layman’s terms, it involves the manipulation of technologies like Voice over IP (VoIP), which allows people to make voice and video calls using an internet connection, rather than a traditional phone line. Cybercriminals may spoof phone numbers, impersonate trusted entities, or send deceptive messages that prompt victims into revealing sensitive information or making fraudulent payments.

As society becomes increasingly reliant on internet-based communication services, FoIP has emerged as a formidable threat in the digital age. Typically, FoIP is implemented as an attempt to acquire highly sensitive data such as personal identification information or financial credentials. One common example involves the use of robocalling scams, where fraudsters use auto-dialing software to make thousands of calls with pre-recorded messages, masquerading as legitimate businesses or organizations.

In such instances, potential victims may be asked to provide sensitive information under the guise of rectifying issues like tax debts, bank anomalies, or even claiming prizes. These schemes prey on the vulnerabilities of unsuspecting individuals, exploiting them by using fear or incentivization tactics. Thus, it is crucial to understand the potential dangers associated with FoIP, be vigilant in identifying malicious communications, and report suspicious activity to appropriate authorities to safeguard one’s security and privacy in the digital realm.

Examples of Fraud over Internet Protocol

Fraud over Internet Protocol (FoIP) refers to various scams and fraudulent activities that occur over the internet using IP-based services such as email, VoIP, messaging apps, and other communication services. Here are three real-world examples of FoIP:

The IRS Scam: A common example of FoIP is the IRS scam, in which fraudsters pose as an IRS agent or a debt collector and convince people that they have an outstanding tax debt. The scammers call victims using voice over IP services to make the phone number appear legitimate and demand immediate payment via pre-paid debit card, gift card, or wire transfer to avoid arrest, seizure of property, or other penalties.

Phishing Emails: This type of scam involves sending emails that appear to be from reputable organizations such as banks, online payment services, or social networks, and soliciting personal information such as login credentials, credit card numbers, or social security numbers. The emails often include an urgent call to action and a link that takes the recipient to a bogus website designed to look like the legitimate one.

Business Email Compromise (BEC): In this type of scam, the fraudster gains access to a company’s email system and impersonates high-ranking executives or financial decision-makers. They then send seemingly legitimate emails to employees, instructing them to transfer funds or share sensitive information. These scams are particularly insidious because they can go undetected for long periods and cause significant financial damage to the impacted company.

Frequently Asked Questions: Fraud over Internet Protocol

What is Fraud over Internet Protocol (FoIP)?

Fraud over Internet Protocol (FoIP) refers to criminal activities that involve deceiving individuals or organizations using IP-based communication technologies. These scams often involve the use of voice, text, or messaging apps to carry out fraudulent schemes.

What are some common examples of FoIP scams?

Common examples of FoIP scams include phishing attacks, vishing (voice phishing), smishing (SMS phishing), and various types of social engineering attacks. Perpetrators impersonate legitimate institutions or individuals to deceive their victims into sharing sensitive information or conducting unauthorized financial transactions.

How can I protect myself from FoIP scams?

To protect yourself from FoIP scams, follow these precautions:

  • Be cautious of unsolicited communications and requests for personal information.
  • Never give out sensitive information, such as your passwords or financial details, to an unknown or unverified source.
  • Install and maintain up-to-date security software on your devices.
  • Use strong, unique passwords for all your accounts and enable multi-factor authentication whenever possible.
  • Stay informed about the latest scams and social engineering tactics.

How should I report incidents of FoIP?

If you believe you have been a victim of a FoIP scam, report the incident to your local law enforcement agency, the Federal Trade Commission, or your country’s equivalent consumer protection agency. Additionally, notify your bank or financial institution if the scam involved your financial information or accounts.

What is being done to combat FoIP?

Various organizations and government bodies are working to combat FoIP scams by implementing stricter policies, promoting public awareness, and supporting research and technological advancements in cybersecurity. Collaboration between law enforcement agencies, businesses, and the public is essential to effectively counter these threats and reduce their prevalence.

Related Technology Terms

  • Phishing scams
  • VoIP hacking
  • Account takeover
  • Caller ID spoofing
  • Online identity theft

Sources for More Information


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