Impermanent Loss


Impermanent loss is a term used in the context of decentralized finance (DeFi) and liquidity pools, specifically in automated market makers (AMMs) like Uniswap and Balancer. It occurs when the value of tokens within a liquidity pool fluctuates, causing the ratio between them to change. This can lead to a temporary loss for liquidity providers, as their share of the pool may be worth less than the initial investment, potentially making it less profitable or even unprofitable to provide liquidity.


The phonetics of the keyword “Impermanent Loss” are:Impermanent: /ˌɪmpərˈmənənt/Loss: /lɔs/

Key Takeaways

  1. Impermanent Loss occurs when the value of tokens in a liquidity pool changes, causing the ratio of the two assets to deviate from their initial values. This can lead to a potential loss for liquidity providers when they decide to withdraw their assets from the pool.
  2. Impermanent Loss is more significant when the price of one of the tokens in the pool experiences heavy volatility, either in a positive or negative direction. High volatility of the token prices results in higher chances for the liquidity providers to experience losses when compared to holding the tokens individually.
  3. To mitigate Impermanent Loss, liquidity providers can choose stablecoin-based pools that are less volatile, opt for pools that offer higher rewards to compensate for potential losses, or explore advanced solutions like concentrated liquidity and other strategies that help limit exposure to price fluctuations.


Impermanent Loss is an essential concept in decentralized finance (DeFi) because it refers to a temporary reduction in the value of tokens deposited by liquidity providers (LPs) into a liquidity pool, which is caused by volatility in the relative prices of trading pairs.

When the prices of the trading pair fluctuate significantly, LPs may incur a loss compared to if they had held their tokens individually rather than contributing to the pool.

It is called “impermanent” because the loss can be recovered if the asset prices return to their original levels.

Understanding impermanent loss helps users navigate risks and make informed decisions when participating in DeFi platforms and yield farming.


Impermanent loss is a term that arises in the context of decentralized finance (DeFi) and refers to the potential loss experienced by crypto investors who provide liquidity to an automated market maker (AMM) like Uniswap, Balancer, or Curve. The purpose of an AMM is to facilitate instant and decentralized trading of crypto assets or tokens without the need for a traditional order book, while improving price efficiency and providing seamless trading experiences.

Liquidity providers (LPs) play a crucial role in supporting this technology, as they deposit their assets into smart contracts in the form of liquidity pools and facilitate trade execution while earning fees on every transaction. However, impermanent loss comes into the picture when the relative prices of assets in a given pool shift due to market fluctuations.

As LPs deposit two assets in a pair, say A and B, often in a 50/50 ratio, the pool adjusts the amounts of each token to maintain a constant product (K), which triggers the impermanent loss. The temporary aspect of this loss stems from the fact that the loss can be negated or even reversed if the prices revert to their original state.

Impermanent loss, therefore, acts as a risk factor that liquidity providers need to take into account when committing assets to AMMs. By anticipating and understanding the effects of impermanent loss, investors can make informed decisions about their involvement in DeFi-based liquidity pools and mitigate potential losses.

Examples of Impermanent Loss

Impermanent loss is a phenomenon experienced by liquidity providers in decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms, particularly in automated market maker (AMM) protocols like Uniswap, Balancer, and Curve. It occurs when the value of tokens within a liquidity pool deviates significantly due to price fluctuations, causing providers to lose a portion of their initial investment. Here are three real-world examples:Uniswap (Ethereum-based Decentralized Exchange): In September 2020, a Uniswap user provided liquidity to the ETH/WBTC pair in the platform’s AMM pool by depositing an equivalent value of Ethereum and Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC). Over time, Ethereum’s price increased significantly in relation to WBTC. Due to the mechanism of constant product market makers, the ratio of ETH/WBTC shifted to maintain the pool’s constant value. When the user withdrew the liquidity, the difference between deposit value and withdrawal value resulted in impermanent loss.

Balancer (Automated Portfolio Manager): A liquidity provider on Balancer deposited stablecoins DAI, USDC, and USDT into a pool with a3% weight for each. The pool experienced price volatility as DAI’s value drifted above $

Due to Balancer’s automated rebalancing mechanism, the pool’s composition shifted away from DAI, increasing holdings in USDC and USDT. When the user removed liquidity from the pool, they suffered an impermanent loss as DAI’s value returned to the $1 peg, but their proportion of DAI within the pool had decreased.Curve (Stablecoin-focused AMM): A user deposited DAI and USDC into the Curve’s stablecoin pool with equal weights. A major market event led to a significant depegging of DAI from its target value of $

While Curve’s efficient market making algorithm aims to minimize slippage and encourage stablecoin arbitrage, the sudden price change triggered a temporary imbalance in the pool’s token composition. When the provider withdrew their funds, they received a smaller amount due to impermanent losses incurred during the depegging.

FAQ: Impermanent Loss

1. What is impermanent loss?

Impermanent loss refers to the temporary decrease in the value of a liquidity provider’s share of a liquidity pool in an Automated Market Maker (AMM) like Uniswap or Balancer. This happens when the relative price of tokens in the pool changes compared to the time of initial deposit, negatively impacting the liquidity provider’s returns.

2. What causes impermanent loss?

Impermanent loss is caused by changes in the relative prices of tokens in a liquidity pool. When token prices change, AMMs adjust the token ratio to maintain the same pool value. As a result, liquidity providers can own a smaller share of the pool than initially, causing a loss in value. This loss is considered “impermanent” because it can be mitigated if token prices return to their initial ratios.

3. How can I calculate impermanent loss?

Impermanent loss can be calculated using the following formula: IL = 2 * √(x * y) – x – y, where x and y represent the initial quantities of tokens A and B in the pool. The outcome of the formula will show the percentage of impermanent loss compared to holding the tokens individually.

4. Is impermanent loss always a negative outcome?

Impermanent loss can be negative or neutral, depending on the price movements of tokens in the pool. When token prices return to their initial ratios, the impermanent loss is neutralized. However, if the prices move further apart, the impermanent loss may become more significant and negatively impact liquidity provider returns.

5. How can I minimize the risk of impermanent loss?

To minimize the risk of impermanent loss, liquidity providers can consider investing in pools with stable assets, such as stablecoin pairs. This helps reduce price volatility in the pool, lowering the risk of significant impermanent loss. Additionally, selecting a pool with a higher trading fee percentage may help offset the potential impermanent loss from price fluctuations.

Related Technology Terms

  • Liquidity Pools
  • Automated Market Makers (AMMs)
  • Token Pair Ratios
  • Arbitrage Opportunities
  • Constant Product Formula

Sources for More Information


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