Netwar is a term used to describe conflicts or struggles where the primary focus is on information and communication technologies (ICTs). It involves disrupting, damaging, or destroying an adversary’s information, communication, and decision-making capabilities through tactics like cyber-attacks, propaganda, and espionage. The goal of a netwar is to gain information superiority and exploit vulnerabilities in the opponent’s systems.

Key Takeaways

  1. Netwar refers to an emerging mode of conflict where information, communication, and network technologies are weaponized to gain advantage over adversaries by manipulating, disrupting, or damaging their digital infrastructure and communications.
  2. Netwar targets both military and non-military systems, as well as individuals, organizations, and even entire societies, making it a multifaceted and multidimensional form of conflict. It includes a wide range of activities, such as cyberwarfare, information warfare, psychological operations, and large-scale disinformation campaigns.
  3. Defending against Netwar requires comprehensive and robust cybersecurity measures at the individual, organizational, and national levels. This may include the creation of specialized cyber defense agencies, public-private partnerships, international cooperation, and continuous investment in research and development of new technologies and cybersecurity strategies.


The term “Netwar” is important in the realm of technology as it encompasses a new form of conflict and extensive array of actions where the actors use networked forms of organization and related doctrines, strategies, and tactics.

Netwar primarily focuses on disrupting or destroying the information and communication systems of the adversaries while defending against similar attacks.

This emerging paradigm of conflict typically involves non-state actors such as terrorists, criminals, and hackers, leveraging information technology to wage asymmetric warfare in cyberspace.

Acknowledging and understanding Netwar becomes increasingly crucial in this digital age to enhance the security and resilience of nations and organizations against cyber threats, strengthening defense mechanisms, and creating effective countermeasures to safeguard the integrity of valuable data and information systems.


Netwar is a strategic approach to confronting adversaries in the digital realm, where information and communication technologies play a vital role. The primary purpose of Netwar is to achieve an advantageous position in the information domain, where competing actors attempt to assert control, disseminate disinformation, or disrupt the enemies’ networked capabilities. This modern form of conflict goes beyond traditional warfare by utilizing nonviolent methods, such as cyberattacks, propaganda campaigns, and stealthy psychological operations.

Netwar aims at diluting an opponent’s ability to function effectively, either by eroding their public support or compromising their critical infrastructure, rather than relying solely on military force. A significant aspect of Netwar lies in its ability to shape public opinion and influence global narratives through the strategic use of information, both overt and covert. This is achieved using various methods, including misinformation, cyber espionage, and the manipulation of social media algorithms.

Additionally, Netwar can be deployed to cripple an adversary’s cyber defenses and exploit vulnerabilities in their systems, ultimately resulting in physical or psychological damage. Although traditionally undertaken by state actors, non-state actors, such as terrorist organizations, criminal networks, and hacktivist groups, have also effectively adopted Netwar tactics as part of their operations. Overall, Netwar has emerged as a critical component of modern warfare, where battles are increasingly fought in the digital realm, with nations and organizations vying for dominance in the ever-evolving information landscape.

Examples of Netwar

Netwar is a term coined to describe the use of networked forms of communication, collaboration, and information warfare to achieve strategic objectives. It involves both state and non-state actors that utilize the internet, social media, and other digital technologies for psychological, ideological, and political purposes. Here are three real-world examples of Netwar:

2016 US Presidential Election: During the 2016 US presidential election, the Russian government was believed to have engaged in a sophisticated netwar campaign to influence the outcome. This included hacking into the Democratic National Committee’s (DNC) computer system, releasing sensitive information, and spreading disinformation through social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter. The objective was to create distrust among the American public, sow divisions, and aid the candidacy of Donald Trump.

Arab Spring: The Arab Spring uprisings, which began in late 2010, can be seen as an example of netwar, as social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube were heavily utilized by activists in the Middle East and North Africa to organize protests, share information, and mobilize supporters. These digital tools allowed the protestors to bypass state-controlled media and coordinate their efforts on a regional and international level, ultimately leading to the overthrow of several long-standing authoritarian governments.

ISIS Online Propaganda: ISIS, the notorious extremist group, has used netwar tactics to spread its propaganda and recruit followers worldwide. They have been able to amplify their message by leveraging social media, encrypted messaging apps, and the dark web. This has allowed them to create slick multimedia productions, which they disseminate to a vast global audience. These efforts have played a significant role in the group’s ability to radicalize individuals and recruit foreign fighters.

Netwar FAQ

What is Netwar?

Netwar refers to conflict in which the actors use network forms of organization and related doctrines, strategies, and technologies that are focused on the information domain. It encompasses various forms of cyber warfare, information warfare, and network-centric warfare.

What are the key components of Netwar?

The key components of Netwar include network-based organization, information dominance, cyber operations, psychological operations, and influence campaigns. It also involves maintaining superior situational awareness, network resiliency, and effective command-and-control structures.

What is the difference between Netwar and Cyberwarfare?

Netwar is a broader concept that encompasses cyberwarfare as well as other forms of network-centric operations. While cyberwarfare focuses specifically on conducting military operations through cyberspace to achieve strategic objectives, Netwar includes both military and non-military operations that use networks and information technology to influence, disrupt, or degrade an adversary’s capabilities.

What are the main goals of Netwar?

The main goals of Netwar are to maintain informational advantage, shape the perceptions and decision-making of adversaries, disrupt or degrade adversaries’ networks and information systems, and protect or defend one’s own networks and information infrastructure.

What are the potential risks and threats of Netwar?

The potential risks and threats of Netwar include increased susceptibility to cyber attacks, the possibility of unintended escalation, blurred lines between combatants and non-combatants, and challenges in attributing responsibility for attacks. It also raises concerns about the erosion of privacy, freedom of speech, and the potential misuse of information by state and non-state actors.

Related Technology Terms

  • Cybersecurity
  • Information Warfare
  • Hacktivism
  • Network Centric Warfare
  • Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

Sources for More Information


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