Network on a Chip


Network on a Chip (NoC) is a communication system that integrates multiple elements, such as computing and storage units, into a single chip to optimize data transfer and enhance overall system performance. Primarily used in complex system-on-chip (SoC) designs, NoCs provide effective solutions for managing the growing demand for interconnectivity and reducing power consumption. They employ methodologies inspired by computer network systems, such as routing, switching, and communication protocols, to increase scalability and energy efficiency.

Key Takeaways

  1. Network on a Chip (NoC) is an efficient communication architecture that connects different processing elements in a single integrated circuit, improving system performance and scalability.
  2. NoCs utilize packet-switching technology, which reduces power consumption and communication latency by allowing parallel transmission of data across multiple paths, making it an ideal choice for complex SoCs and multi-core systems.
  3. As technology continues to advance, NoCs are expected to be more integrated into future technologies, enabling high-performance, low-power devices and systems to meet the demands of AI, machine learning, and other complex applications.


The technology term “Network on a Chip” (NoC) is important because it represents a breakthrough communication paradigm in the realm of integrated circuits and chip design.

As the demand for high-performance, energy-efficient, and scalable solutions for complex computing systems grows, traditional bus-based architectures and interconnect methods have become insufficient.

NoC addresses these challenges by providing a more reliable, efficient, and scalable communication infrastructure within a single chip, essentially integrating numerous processing elements into a single, cohesive network.

This greatly enhances the system’s performance while reducing power consumption, making it highly valuable for designing advanced computing systems such as multi-core processors, embedded devices, and data centers, ultimately driving technological advancements and innovation across various industries.


Network-on-a-Chip (NoC) technology was developed as an effective solution to address complexities and performance issues in modern integrated systems. These issues emerged due to the rise in demand for efficient communication protocols between processors, memory modules, and peripheral devices that make up the embedded systems. The primary purpose of NoC is to facilitate the multiprocessor system-on-a-chip (MPSoC) of the semiconductor industry by introducing scalable, reliable, and power-efficient communication mechanisms.

By interconnecting different functional blocks on a single chip—thus centralizing the communication system through channels—NoC reduces power consumption, wire congestion, and latency. Moreover, it leverages the advancements in parallel processing, enabling a swift exchange of data and enhancing the overall performance of the embedded system. One of the most prevalent usage cases of NoC can be found in high-performance computing systems, where the technology allows effective management and coordination among numerous processing units working concurrently.

Through its flexible and modular architecture, Network-on-a-Chip optimizes the system’s adaptability to evolving application requirements, ensuring efficient resource usage. Additionally, NoCs are widely used in artificial intelligence and machine learning systems, particularly when dealing with complex data processing tasks. By streamlining the communication process, NoC technology lays the groundwork for high-speed and dynamic systems that can tackle increasingly data-intensive applications.

Examples of Network on a Chip

Intel’s Scalable Communications Core (SCC): Intel’s SCC is a research project that employs the Network on a Chip (NoC) concept, which consists of a 48-core experimental processor chip. The NoC design helps streamline communication between multiple cores on the chip by efficiently utilizing available resources, reducing interconnect latency, and improving energy efficiency. The SCC’s objective is to explore the potential of many-core processors and their performance in handling future computing tasks.

Tilera’s TILE-Gx family: The TILE-Gx processor family, developed by Tilera Corporation, is a lineup of multicore processors containing up to 72 cores within a single package. The Network on a Chip approach connects each core with an efficient 2D mesh network, allowing all cores to communicate directly with their neighbors. This NoC-based design facilitates an efficient, scalable, high-performance computing environment for applications such as cloud computing, data analytics, and network routing.

Kalray’s MPPA Processors: Kalray is a French company that designs Multi-Purpose Processor Array (MPPA) processors, a series of many-core processors using Network on a Chip principles for efficient communication between cores. One example is the Coolidge processor, which features 80 cores interconnected through an advanced NoC structure. This design enables high parallelism and computing density, making the Coolidge processor suitable for applications such as data center acceleration, autonomous driving, and various high-performance embedded systems.


FAQ: Network on a Chip

1. What is Network on a Chip (NoC)?

A Network on a Chip (NoC) is a communication subsystem that enables on-chip data transmission and interconnection between different components, such as processors, memory, and hardware accelerators. NoC has become an essential element as it can support high-performance, low-power, and reliable communication in systems with a large number of processing elements.

2. How is NoC different from traditional bus-based communication systems?

NoC differs from traditional bus-based communication systems in terms of scalability, performance, and power efficiency. In bus-based systems, all components connect to a shared bus, which can become a bottleneck when handling multiple concurrent requests. NoC, however, uses a distributed and modular network topology, which enables better performance and scalability when dealing with an increased number of on-chip components.

3. What are the main components of a NoC architecture?

A NoC architecture mainly consists of routers, links, and network interfaces. Routers are responsible for routing data packets between different components, while links are the communication channels that connect routers. Network interfaces act as mediators between the components and the NoC, enabling the components to send and receive data through the network.

4. What are the common topologies used in NoC design?

Common NoC topologies include mesh, torus, ring, tree, and fat tree topologies. The choice of topology depends on factors like design objectives, power consumption, latency, reliability, and cost. Each topology has its own benefits and drawbacks, so the choice depends on the specific requirements of the system being designed.

5. What role does NoC play in improving chip performance?

NoC plays a crucial role in enhancing chip performance, particularly in multi-core and many-core architectures. It enables faster, more efficient communication between on-chip components, resulting in better performance, lower power consumption, and reduced design complexity. NoC also helps minimize the communication latency between cores, which significantly contributes to the overall system performance improvement.


Related Technology Terms

  • Interconnect Topology
  • Routing Algorithms
  • Network-on-Chip Architectures
  • Switching Techniques
  • Quality of Service (QoS)

Sources for More Information


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