A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer system that uses a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). These systems often include components such as memory, input/output peripherals, and storage, integrated on a single circuit board. Microcomputers are commonly used in personal computers, laptops, and some embedded systems.

Key Takeaways

  1. A microcomputer is a small, relatively low-cost computer consisting of a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU), memory, and input/output devices.
  2. Microcomputers are generally used for personal computing tasks, such as word processing, spreadsheets, and internet browsing, making them popular as personal computers (PCs) or desktops, laptops, and even smaller devices like smartphones and tablets.
  3. Microcomputers have made computing more accessible and affordable, paving the way for widespread use of computers in various sectors, such as education, businesses, and personal leisure activities.


The term “microcomputer” is important because it signifies a critical advancement in computing technology, where compact, affordable, and versatile computing systems became more accessible, revolutionizing how individuals and businesses process and manage information.

Microcomputers, also known as personal computers or PCs, consist of a microprocessor and additional components that enable data input, output, and storage.

Compared to their larger predecessors, mainframes, and minicomputers, microcomputers have democratized computer usage, fueled technological innovation, and changed the trajectory of the digital age.

They continue to impact our daily lives, facilitating communication, work efficiency, and personal entertainment through their remarkable evolution.


Microcomputers serve as an integral component in today’s increasingly digitized world by providing versatile computing capabilities to both individuals and organizations. Engineered with a smaller physical footprint, microcomputers are embedded with microprocessors that facilitate the efficient performance of various tasks.

This class of computers has gained immense popularity due to their affordability and compact design, making them well-suited for diverse purposes such as personal computing, financial management, research, entertainment, office tasks, and more. Within the workplace, microcomputers have proven to be an indispensable tool, streamlining data storage, communication, and overall productivity.

In addition to their extensive use in desktops, laptops, and mobile devices, microcomputers are also employed in the fields of automation and robotics, where they contribute to engineering sophisticated control systems. Furthermore, the Internet of Things (IoT) has dramatically expanded the realm of microcomputers, allowing these devices to communicate and exchange data in a seamless manner.

Consequently, microcomputers have now become an essential aspect of everyday life, powering household appliances such as smart thermostats, security systems, and even air conditioning units. As technology continues to evolve and integrate with our environment on multiple levels, the microcomputer remains a key player in unleashing innovative solutions and transforming the user experience.

Examples of Microcomputer

Raspberry Pi: The Raspberry Pi is a series of small, affordable single-board microcomputers that people use for learning programming, building DIY projects, and even as the foundation for home automation systems. Raspberry Pi devices run a variety of operating systems, including Linux distributions like Raspbian and Ubuntu MATE.

Arduino: Arduino is an open-source microcomputer platform that has been designed for building digital devices and interactive projects that require input/output (I/O) capabilities. It consists of both a programmable circuit board, which is the hardware, and the IDE (Integrated Development Environment), which runs on your computer and helps you write the code that runs on the Arduino. Arduino boards are popular among hobbyists and professionals alike for creating anything from simple LED light controls to complex robotic systems.

Intel NUC (Next Unit of Computing): The Intel NUC is a small form factor microcomputer designed by Intel. It is essentially a small, customizable personal computer (PC) that combines various components, such as the CPU, integrated graphics, and memory, on a single compact motherboard. NUCs are typically used as home media centers, simple personal computing workstations, or even in professional environments for digital signage and other commercial applications.

Microcomputer FAQ

What is a microcomputer?

A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). It includes a microprocessor, memory, and minimal input/output (I/O) circuitry mounted on a single printed circuit board (PCB).

What are some common uses for microcomputers?

Microcomputers are commonly used for personal computing, office tasks, gaming, programming, and various other applications. They can be found in desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and even some smartphones.

What is the difference between a microcomputer, minicomputer, and mainframe computer?

Microcomputers are the smallest and least expensive of the three, designed for individual use and small businesses. Minicomputers are larger and more powerful than microcomputers, used by medium-sized companies for specific tasks or to support multiple users. Mainframe computers are the largest and most powerful, designed for large organizations and capable of handling massive amounts of data and simultaneous users.

What are some examples of microprocessor-based devices?

Some examples of microprocessor-based devices include personal computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, single-board computers (such as Raspberry Pi), and various embedded systems used in consumer electronics and industrial applications.

Who invented the microcomputer?

The first microcomputer, the Altair 8800, was developed in 1974 by Ed Roberts, an American engineer, and Bill Gates and Paul Allen, who later founded Microsoft, wrote the first programming language interpreter for it.

Related Technology Terms

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • Input/output (I/O) Devices
  • Operating System (OS)
  • Microprocessor

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