A minicomputer is a type of computer that falls between a mainframe computer and a microcomputer in terms of processing power and size. These mid-range systems emerged in the 1960s as smaller, less expensive alternatives to mainframe computers. While still widely used in the past, minicomputers have been largely phased out as modern personal computers and servers offer similar processing capabilities.

Key Takeaways

  1. Minicomputers are smaller and less powerful than mainframe computers, but more powerful than microcomputers or personal computers. They were popular in the 1960s and 1970s for businesses and research institutions.
  2. Due to their size, minicomputers offered affordable computing power, making them suitable for tasks such as data processing, scientific research, industrial control, and telecommunications support.
  3. With advancements in technology, especially the rise of microcomputers and personal computers, minicomputers have become largely obsolete, but their architectural concepts and designs still influence modern server systems and computing architecture.


The term “minicomputer” is important in the technology world as it signifies a critical milestone in the evolution of computing.

Minicomputers, which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, were smaller, less expensive, and more accessible than mainframes, yet significantly more powerful than the microcomputers and personal desktops that succeeded them.

Their compact size, affordability, and ability to support multiple users made minicomputers instrumental in many industrial, scientific, and educational applications, thus democratizing access to computing resources for a wider range of users.

Ultimately, minicomputers paved the way for further advancements in computer technology, including servers, workstations, and the modern personal computing landscape.


Minicomputers emerged during the mid-20th century as an intermediate step between the large, expensive mainframe computers and the soon-to-be-invented personal computers. Their primary purpose was to provide small and medium-sized businesses, academic institutions, and industrial organizations with affordable, yet powerful computing resources. A key advantage of minicomputers was their ability to support multiple users simultaneously, as they were designed for time-sharing and multitasking operations.

As a result, minicomputers enabled a more efficient use of system resources, allowing organizations to process data at a fraction of the cost of a mainframe computer. The functionality provided by minicomputers ranged from basic data processing tasks to more complex scientific calculations and simulations, depending on the hardware capabilities and software applications available. In addition to their cost effectiveness, minicomputers revolutionized the computing landscape with their relatively small form factor, which allowed them to be installed in locations with space limitations.

This facilitated the growth of decentralized computing, with individual departments and facilities able to operate and manage their own computing systems. As technology evolved, minicomputers were gradually replaced by more powerful and affordable personal computers and workstations. However, the impact of minicomputers should not be underestimated, as they played a significant role in making computing technology more accessible and widespread, paving the way for the modern era of computing that we know today.

Examples of Minicomputer

PDP-8: The Digital Equipment Corporation developed and released the PDP-8 minicomputer in 1965, which marked the beginning of minicomputers’ popularity. Being less expensive than mainframes and more powerful than microcomputers, the PDP-8 was preferred by businesses and educational institutions for computation and information processing tasks.

Data General Nova: In 1969, Data General introduced the Nova minicomputer, which was known for its compact design and versatility. With a 16-bit processor, the Nova was highly successful in industrial control systems and was even used in spacecraft for guidance and control.

IBM System/32: IBM’s System/32, introduced in 1975, was another popular minicomputer that catered to small businesses. It provided various business applications such as accounting, inventory control, and payroll. With its integrated hardware and software system, the IBM System/32 made it easier for smaller organizations to adopt technology for their operations.

Minicomputer FAQ

1. What is a minicomputer?

A minicomputer, also known as a mid-range computer, is a type of computer system that falls between a mainframe computer and a microcomputer in terms of size and processing power. Minicomputers are relatively smaller, less expensive and less powerful than mainframes, but are more powerful and have a larger capacity than microcomputers.

2. What are the main uses of minicomputers?

Minicomputers were primarily used for a wide range of business processing tasks, scientific applications, database management, and real-time control systems. They were popular in the 1960s and 1970s before being surpassed by more powerful and smaller personal computers and workstations.

3. How does a minicomputer differ from a mainframe computer and a microcomputer?

Minicomputers fall between mainframe computers and microcomputers in terms of size, processing power, and cost. Mainframes are larger, more powerful, and more expensive, typically used by large organizations for mission-critical applications. Microcomputers, like personal computers, are smaller, less powerful, and less expensive, designed for individual use or small businesses. Minicomputers offer a balance between the two, providing more processing power than microcomputers while being more affordable than mainframes.

4. What are some examples of minicomputers?

Some notable examples of minicomputers include the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP and VAX series, IBM System/3, and the Hewlett-Packard HP 3000 series. These computers were widely used in various industries, research, and educational institutions during their time.

5. Are minicomputers still in use today?

While the classic minicomputers were largely replaced by personal computers, workstations, and servers in the 1980s and 1990s, the term “minicomputer” sometimes still refers to mid-range and edge computing systems used in various industries. In recent years, the term has been applied to devices like single-board computers that bridge the gap between traditional PCs and microcontrollers in devices such as IoT applications.

Related Technology Terms

  • Multitasking
  • Supports multiple users
  • Central processing unit (CPU)
  • Real-time computing
  • Data storage and retrieval

Sources for More Information

  • IBM – International Business Machines Corporation, one of the pioneers in the development of minicomputers
  • Computer History Museum – A comprehensive archive of computing history, including exhibits on minicomputers
  • ScienceDirect – A research database with numerous articles covering the history and development of minicomputers
  • IEEE Xplore – A digital library providing access to various research materials and articles on the subject of minicomputers

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