Moore’s Law

Law Progression


Moore’s Law is a prediction made by Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel, in 1965, stating that the number of transistors on a microchip would double approximately every two years. This increase in transistor density leads to consistent improvements in computing power and efficiency. Though not a strict scientific law, Moore’s Law has largely held true, acting as a guiding principle for semiconductor development and innovation.

Key Takeaways

  1. Moore’s Law is the observation that the number of transistors on a microchip doubles approximately every two years, resulting in increased computing power and efficiency.
  2. Coined by Gordon Moore in 1965, the phenomenon has largely held true till today, driving advancements in the fields of electronics, computers, and telecommunication.
  3. However, some experts believe that Moore’s Law may soon reach its limits, as the miniaturization of transistors becomes more challenging due to physical constraints and economic factors.


Moore’s Law is important because it is a key principle that has guided the development and progress of the technology industry for several decades.

Formulated by Gordon Moore in 1965, Moore’s Law posits that the number of transistors on a microchip can be doubled approximately every two years, resulting in increased computational power, improved performance, and overall advances in the capabilities of electronic devices.

This exponential growth in processing capabilities has driven innovation, breakthroughs, and widespread adoption of products and services across various sectors.

Additionally, it has allowed for continuous miniaturization, increased energy efficiency, and the creation of more affordable devices, resulting in a significant impact on the global economy, human lifestyles, and the tech industry’s trajectory.


Moore’s Law, originally coined by Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel Corporation, in 1965, serves as a guiding principle that has significantly impacted the technological advancements in the semiconductor industry over the past few decades. The law postulates that the number of transistors on a microchip approximately doubles every two years, resulting in an exponential increase in computing power.

This rapid growth has fostered an environment where technology evolves at an astounding pace, driving innovation and improvements in various sectors like computing, communications, medicine, and countless others. The primary purpose of Moore’s Law is to act as a roadmap for the semiconductor industry, encouraging businesses and researchers to continuously strive for greater performance and efficiency in integrated circuitry.

By predicting the pace of technological progress, companies can allocate resources effectively to attain new breakthroughs within the anticipated window. Additionally, following Moore’s Law allows manufacturers to reduce the cost per transistor as they shrink, thus facilitating the mass production of increasingly powerful and affordable devices.

Consequently, Moore’s Law has played an instrumental role in shaping the modern-day electronic landscape, enabling the emergence of high-performance computing devices, smartphones, advanced medical equipment, and many other technological marvels.

Examples of Moore’s Law

Microprocessors: The Intel 4004 microprocessor, released in 1971, was one of the first commercial microprocessors with 2,300 transistors on the chip. Over the years, Moore’s Law has held true, with the number of transistors on microprocessors doubling approximately every two years. For example, the Intel Core i9 processor, released in 2019, contains around 10 billion transistors. The continuous improvement of microprocessors has led to faster and more powerful computing devices.

Memory Storage: Due to Moore’s Law, the storage capacity of memory devices such as hard drives and solid-state drives has consistently increased while the cost per gigabyte has decreased. In the early days of personal computers, hard drives had capacities in the megabytes, while today’s consumer-level SSDs and HDDs have storage capacities ranging from terabytes to petabytes. This allowed for the creation and storage of increasingly complex data and multimedia content.

Mobile Devices: The smartphone revolution is another example of Moore’s Law in action. Early mobile phones were only capable of basic functions such as calls and sending texts. Due to continuous miniaturization and increasing processing power, modern smartphones can now perform tasks previously reserved for desktop computers, like browsing the internet, streaming high-definition video, and running resource-intensive applications. For instance, Apple’s iPhone has seen this increase in processing power with each generation, from the single-core A4 chip in the iPhone 4 to the powerful A14 Bionic chip with

8 billion transistors in the iPhone 12 series.

FAQ: Moore’s Law

What is Moore’s Law?

Moore’s Law is an observation made by Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel, in 1965. It states that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit (microchip) doubles approximately every two years, leading to an increase in computing power and reduction in cost.

Why is Moore’s Law important?

Moore’s Law has been key to understanding and predicting the growth of technology. It has helped guide research and development investments, enabling the development of faster, cheaper, and more efficient electronic devices.

Is Moore’s Law still accurate today?

While Moore’s Law has held true for several decades, some experts believe that we are reaching its physical limits due to the challenges of further miniaturization. However, new technologies and innovations may continue to drive the exponential growth of computing power in different ways.

What are the consequences of the end of Moore’s Law?

If Moore’s Law were to end, computing power may no longer double every two years, potentially slowing the pace of technological advancements. This could lead to a focus on efficiency and alternative technologies rather than relying solely on increased processing power.

What are some alternatives or proposed extensions to Moore’s Law?

Several alternatives and extensions to Moore’s Law have been proposed, including innovations in quantum computing, nanotechnology, and other advanced computing architectures that could potentially continue exponential growth in computing power.

Related Technology Terms

  • Semiconductor industry
  • Integrated circuits
  • Transistor density

  • Computing performance
  • Process technology

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